Eino Heikkinen

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OBJECTIVES To examine the association between muscle strength and total and cause-specific mortality and the plausible contributing factors to this association, such as presence of diseases commonly underlying mortality, inflammation, nutritional deficiency, physical inactivity, smoking, and depression. DESIGN Prospective population-based cohort study(More)
OBJECTIVE To research the natural changes in maximal isometric strength, over a period of 5 years, in men and women aged 75 at baseline, and to study the effect of everyday physical activity on strength alterations. DESIGN A 5-year longitudinal study. SETTING Exercise laboratory. PARTICIPANTS The target group in 1989 was the total 75-year-old(More)
The mechanical properties of the slow soleus and the fast rectus femoris muscle under passive stretching were studied in endurance trained, untrained and lathyritic rats, aged 3 months. The soleus muscle with more abundant and cross-linked collagen had higher ultimate tensile strength and tangent modulus compared to the fast rectus femoris muscle which, on(More)
Within the framework of the Evergreen project we examined how changes in several indicators of health and functioning and physical activity predicted a decline in self-assessments of health evaluated over a 5-year period in older people by two different measurements: self-rated health (SRH) and self-assessed change in health (SACH). The study group(More)
Postural sway behavior while standing and during and after an unexpected disturbance of balance was examined in men aged 31 to 35, 51 to 55, and 71 to 75 years. The groups studied were random samples of men living in the town of Jyväskylä in 1981. Postural sway while standing was more pronounced in the older age groups, whereas after a disturbance of(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine genetic and environmental effects on maximal isometric handgrip, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion strength. In addition, we wanted to investigate whether the strength of these three muscle groups shares a genetic component or whether the genetic effect is specific for each muscle group. Muscle(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the genetic and environmental sources of variation in self-rated health (SRH) in older female twins and to explore the roles of morbidity, functional limitation, and psychological well-being as mediators of genetic and environmental effects on SRH. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of twin data. SETTING Research laboratory. (More)
The objective of this study is to describe the rationale, design and selected baseline results of a 2-year randomized-controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of physical activity counseling in community-living older people. After a four-phase screening and data-collection process targeting all independently living people in the city center of Jyväskylä,(More)
Self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator, but there is little data on its comparability across cultures. We employed samples from Tampere, Finland, and Florence, Italy, of the European Longitudinal Study on Aging to examine the cultural and gender differences in self-rated health. Personal interview data was used and vital status ascertained(More)
BACKGROUND There are no earlier cross-national comparative studies analyzing the functions of the posture control mechanisms and its sensory-motor correlates in elderly subjects. We investigated whether there are differences in balance between elderly subjects living in different geographical areas, and analyzed the sensory-motor associates of balance in(More)