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We present an approach for analyzing internal dependencies in counting processes. This covers the case with repeated events on each of a number of individuals, and more generally, the situation where several processes are observed for each individual. We define dynamic covariates, i.e., covariates depending on the past of the processes. The statistical(More)
Fifteen healthy old people mean age 84 years (range 80-91 years), were examined to assess the effect of advanced age on the microecology of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Twelve of 15 (80%) were hypochlorhydric with pH 6.6 (0.3) (mean (SEM) and a mean bacterial count of 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) per ml (range 10(5)-10(10)) in fasting gastric(More)
For each of several individuals a sequence of repeated events, forming a renewal process, is observed up to some censoring time. The object is to estimate the average interevent time over the population of individuals as well as the variation of interevent times within and between individuals. Medical motivation comes from gastroenterology, and concerns the(More)
The effect of an intestinal microflora consisting of selected microbial species on myoelectric activity of small intestine was studied using germ-free rat models, with recording before and after specific intestinal colonization, in the unanesthetized state. Intestinal transit, neuropeptides in blood (RIA), and neuromessengers in the intestinal wall were(More)
Microbial modulation of myoelectric activity in small intestine was studied. Germ-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with bipolar electrodes from the duodenojejunal junction to the midpoint of small intestine. Prior to and one week after introduction of conventional intestinal microflora, 32 +/- 5% and 61 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE), respectively, of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Bacterial overgrowth and intestinal pseudo-obstruction may succeed abdominal radiotherapy, and absence of intestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) has been reported in bacterial overgrowth. The aims of this study were to address the relationship between intestinal patterns of motility and gastrointestinal microflora and to elucidate the(More)
AIMS To examine the influence of duodenal intubation on gastric emptying measured by the paracetamol absorption test using a new algorithm developed to estimate emptying parameters, and to determine the sensitivity of this test. METHODS A caloric liquid meal with paracetamol as marker of emptying was administered orally to eight healthy volunteers during(More)
OBJECTIVE Fecal calprotectin concentration in stool has recently been proposed as a marker of colonic neoplasm and inflammation, but the intraindividual day-to-day variability has so far received little attention. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological variability of fecal calprotectin in patients referred for colonoscopy. METHODS A(More)
Intestinal disorders suggesting impaired gastrointestinal motility due to aging have been reported, but the influence of advanced age on the patterns of motility in the human small intestine is unknown. The present prospective study describes these patterns of motility in 15 healthy old subjects with a median of 84 years (range, 81-91 years). Nineteen(More)