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Greywater is all domestic wastewater excluding toilet effluents. Detergents contain surfactants, which account for the highest concentration of organic chemicals in average domestic wastewater. Accumulation of surfactants in greywater-irrigated soils was determined in three household gardens. The effect of surfactants on capillary rise in loess and sand was(More)
The aim of this study was to explore biodegradation potential of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a deep contaminated unsaturated zone over Israel's coastal aquifer. While anaerobic biodegradation potential was observed throughout the profile down to the water table at a depth of 45 m, aerobic biodegradation was limited to the surface of the(More)
Groundwater contamination by the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a global problem. Israel’s coastal aquifer was contaminated with RDX. This aquifer is mostly aerobic and we therefore sought aerobic bacteria that might be involved in natural attenuation of the compound in the aquifer. RDX-degrading bacteria were captured by(More)
We describe TNT's inhibition of RDX and HMX anaerobic degradation in contaminated soil containing indigenous microbial populations. Biodegradation of RDX or HMX alone was markedly faster than their degradation in a mixture with TNT, implying biodegradation inhibition by the latter. The delay caused by the presence of TNT continued even after its(More)
A series of field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the mechanisms of particle detachment and transport from fractures in vadose chalk. Experiments of intermittent flow events along fracture surfaces were carried out in the laboratory. In the field, water was percolated from land surface via a discrete fracture into a compartmental sampler(More)
Sorption capability of bedrock components from a fractured chalk province was evaluated using ametryn, phenanthrene, m-xylene, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and 1,2-dichloroethane. Sorption isotherms for the four aromatic compounds were nonlinear on gray (unoxidized) chalk. Over the studied solution ranges, the distribution coefficient decreased by factor of 3 for(More)
Soil redox potential plays a key role in the rates and pathways of explosives degradation, and is highly influenced by water content and microbial activity. Soil redox potential can vary significantly both temporally and spatially in micro-sites. In this study, when soil water content increased, the redox potential decreased, and there was significant(More)
The mechanism of the spontaneous decomposition of 3-bromo-2,2-bis(bromomethyl)propanol (TBNPA) and the kinetics of the reaction of the parent compound and two subsequent products were determined in aqueous solution at temperatures from 30 to 70 degrees C and pH from 7.0 to 9.5. TBNPA is decomposed by a sequence of reactions that form(More)
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common contaminant at explosives production sites. Here, we report on the use of compound-specific isotope analysis of RDX to obtain delta(15)N and delta(18)O enrichment factors during biodegradation in batch cultures. A new preparation method has been developed based on RDX purification using thin-layer(More)
A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10(More)