Eileen Rich

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BACKGROUND Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore prescribing practitioners' perspectives on prescribed codeine use, their ability to identify dependence and their options for treatment in the UK. DESIGN Cross-sectional design using a questionnaire containing closed-ended and open-ended items. SETTING A nationally representative sample of prescribing professionals working in the(More)
Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline(More)
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