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The gene defective in Huntington's disease encodes a protein, huntingtin, with unknown function. Antisera generated against three separate regions of huntingtin identified a single high molecular weight protein of approximately 320 kDa on immunoblots of human neuroblastoma extracts. The same protein species was detected in human and rat cortex synaptosomes(More)
Depending on the size of the pores one wishes to produce in plasma membranes, the choice will probably fall on one of the three toxins discussed above. S. aureus alpha-toxin should be tried first when pores of 1-1.5 nm diameter are required. This is generally the case when Ca2+ and nucleotide dependence of a given process is being studied. If alpha-toxin(More)
OBJECTIVE Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being investigated as a potential treatment for depression. Few studies have addressed the neurocognitive effects of a course of rTMS in severely depressed patients. We evaluated neurocognitive effects of a 1-4 week course (mean 3 weeks) of rTMS using an aggressive set of parameters, in 15(More)
OBJECTIVE There are conflicting reports of adverse HIV-associated alterations in white matter integrity as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We sought to address these conflicting reports by assessing, on a voxel-by-voxel basis, HIV-associated regional changes in radiologically defined normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) integrity using(More)
When applied at low concentrations (< 10 micrograms/ml), staphylococcal alpha-toxin generates a small channel in keratinocyte and lymphocyte membranes that permits selective transmembrane flux of monovalent ions. Here we show that a moderate concentration (1-50 micrograms/ml) of alpha-toxin similarly produces a small pore in membranes of human fibroblasts.(More)
We describe a simple microtiter method for determining the susceptibility of Candida albicans and hyphal forms of Aspergillus fumigatus against antifungal agents. The assay measures mitochondrial respiration by determining reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to formazan, a process that is enhanced in the(More)
Incubation of human keratinocytes with nanomolar concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin leads to irreversible depletion of cellular ATP. The toxin forms hexamers in the target cell membranes, and rapid transmembrane flux of K+, Na+, and 86Rb+ is observed. Unexpectedly, pores formed in keratinocytes through application of low but lethal doses of(More)
This study addressed the effects of fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine on the candidacidal activity of amphotericin B in the presence of human serum. A Candida albicans isolate that was susceptible to all three agents according to standard testing procedures was employed. Fungicidal activity was estimated by using a flow cytometric procedure that exploited(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effects of neuromuscular blockade using botulinum toxin A on juvenile muscles at a dosage of 6 units/kg body weight in a rat model. DESIGN A total of 34 male Sprague-Dawley rats (1-mo old) were used. A small incision was made along the posterior aspect of the left hind leg with the exposure of the gastrocnemius. Botulinum toxin A(More)
The influence of low doses of amphotericin B on the capacity of human monocytes to kill Candida albicans was investigated. Killing rates were quantified by a novel flow cytometric assay and were found to be 37% +/- 3% (standard error of the mean) after 3 h. Preincubation of monocytes for 6 to 20 h with low concentrations of amphotericin B (0.2 microgram/ml)(More)