Eileen A. Maher

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Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans, but currently do not transmit efficiently among humans. The viral haemagglutinin (HA) protein is a known host-range determinant as it mediates virus binding to host-specific cellular receptors. Here we assess the molecular changes in HA that would allow a virus possessing subtype(More)
Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans; however, when human infection and subsequent human-to-human transmission occurs, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern owing to the appreciable case(More)
Avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses pose a pandemic threat. As few as five amino acid substitutions, or four with reassortment, might be sufficient for mammal-to-mammal transmission through respiratory droplets. From surveillance data, we found that two of these substitutions are common in A/H5N1 viruses, and thus, some viruses might require only three(More)
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are sensor-transducer proteins capable of decoding calcium signals in diverse phosphorylation-dependent calcium signaling networks in plants and some protists. Using a novel yeast two-hybrid (YTH) approach with constitutively active and/or catalytically inactive forms of AtCPK11 as bait, we identified AtDi19 as an(More)
This document includes signatures by the authors of the Imai et al manuscript entitled " Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 haemagglutinin (HA) confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets " indicating their agreement to the removal of one of the authors, Douglas A. Holtzman.
A biologically contained influenza A virus that stably expresses a foreign gene can be effectively traced, used to generate a novel multivalent vaccine and have its replication easily assessed, all while satisfying safety concerns regarding pathogenicity or reversion. This study generated a PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that harboured the GFP(More)
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are essential sensor-transducers of calcium signaling pathways in plants. Functional characterization of CDPKs is of great interest because they play important roles during growth, development, and in response to a wide range of environmental stimuli. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 34 CDPKs, but very few substrates(More)
Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin(More)
Avian influenza viruses rarely infect humans, but the recently emerged avian H7N9 influenza viruses have caused sporadic infections in humans in China, resulting in 440 confirmed cases with 122 fatalities as of 16 May 2014. In addition, epidemiologic surveys suggest that there have been asymptomatic or mild human infections with H7N9 viruses. These viruses(More)
Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918(More)