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The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording with motoneurones to knee flexors and ankle extensors. The results of Eccles and Lundberg (1959) have been confirmed and extended. There was wide convergence from flexors and(More)
A hypothesis is forwarded regarding the role of secondary spindle afferents and the FRA (flexor reflex afferents) in motor control. The hypothesis is based on evidence (cf. Lundberg et al. 1987a, b) summarized in 9 introductory paragraphs. Group II excitation. It is postulated that subsets of excitatory group II interneurones (transmitting disynaptic group(More)
The generation of locomotor-like spinal rhythms has been proposed to involve two neural centres with mutual reciprocal inhibition (Graham Brown's "half-centre" hypothesis). Much later a particular set of segmental flexor reflex pathways were described as being organized in accordance with this half-centre hypothesis. As these pathways became operative(More)
To understand the pathomechanisms of spinal cord injuries will be a prerequisite to develop efficient therapies. By investigating acute lesions of spinal cord white matter in anesthetized mice with fluorescently labeled microglia and axons using in vivo two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (2P-LSM), we identified the messenger nitric oxide (NO) as a(More)
The convergence of group II muscle afferents on interneurones in reflex pathways has been elucidated by investigating interaction in transmission to motoneurones. Recording was also made from interneurones activated from group II afferents. Maximal group II EPSPs evoked in motoneurones from different muscles (extensors or flexors and extensors) did not(More)
As CNS macrophages, microglia show a high spontaneous motility of their processes, continuously surveying their microenvironment. Upon CNS injury, microglia react by immediate cellular polarization and process extension toward the lesion site as well as by subsequent amoeboid lesion-directed migration and phagocytosis. To determine the ability of microglia(More)
1. Intracellular recording from motoneurones to hind limb muscles in the cat was used to investigate the effect of volleys in the posterior nerve to the knee joint on motoneurones and on transmission from Ib afferents. 2. Volleys in the joint nerve facilitate transmission in disynaptic and trisynaptic inhibitory and excitatory reflex pathways from Ib(More)
Interactions between the input from cutaneous and nociceptive muscle afferents in polysynaptic reflex pathways were investigated in man. Interaction was tested by evoking reflexes before, during, and after a period of muscle pain induced by intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline. Muscle pain was induced either in the ankle flexor (tibialis anterior,(More)