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A Clos-network switch architecture is attractive because of its scalability. Previously proposed implementable dispatching schemes from the first stage to the second stage, such as random dispatching (RD), are not able to achieve high throughput unless the internal bandwidth is expanded. This paper presents two round-robin-based dispatching schemes to(More)
Buffered crossbars have been considered as an alternative for non-buffered crossbars to improve switching throughput. The drawback of a buffered crossbar is the memory amount that is proportional to the square of the number of ports (O N ). This is not the main limitation when the buffer size is kept to a minimum size such that implementation is feasible.(More)
This article presents two dynamic multilayer routing policies implemented in the photonic MPLS router developed by NTT for IP+optical generalized MPLS networks. According to IP traffic requests, wavelength paths called lambda label switched paths are set up and released in a distributed manner based on GMPLS routing and signaling protocols. Both dynamic(More)
Flexgrid technology is now considered to be a promising solution for future high-speed network design. In this context, we need a tutorial that covers the key aspects of elastic optical networks. This tutorial paper starts with a brief introduction of the elastic optical network and its unique characteristics. The paper then moves to the architecture of the(More)
Input-buffered switches have been widely considered for implementing feasible packet switches. However, their matching process may not be time-efficient for switches with high-speed ports. Buffered crossbars (BXs) are an alternative to relax timing for packet switches with high-speed ports and to provide high-performance switching. BX switches were(More)
Akt (protein kinase B) is a serine/threonine kinase which is a central regulator of widely divergent cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival and metabolism. Akt is activated by a variety of stimuli, through growth factor receptors, in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Akt is also negatively(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Detection of occult cancer cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow has recently received a great deal of attention regarding the prediction of postoperative recurrence of the cancer, and for novel strategies of adjuvant therapy. This study addresses the detection of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood in patients with gastric cancer(More)
We propose a novel architecture, a Combined Input-CrosspointOutput Buffered (CIXOB-k, where k is the size of the crosspoint buffer) Switch. CIXOB-k architecture provides 100% throughput under uniform and unbalanced traffic. It also provides timing relaxation and scalability. CIXOB-k is based on a switch with Combined Input-Crosspoint Buffering (CIXB-k) and(More)
This letter proposes a disjoint path selection scheme for generalized multi-protocol label switching (GMPLS) networks with shared risk link group (SRLG) constraints. It is called the weighted-SRLG (WSRLG) scheme. It treats the number of SRLG members related to a link as part of the link cost when the -shortest path algorithm is executed. In WSRLG, a link(More)