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— Buffered crossbars have been considered as an alternative for non-buffered crossbars to improve switching throughput. The drawback of a buffered crossbar is the memory amount that is proportional to the square of the number of ports (O(N 2)). This is not the main limitation when the buffer size is kept to a minimum size such that implementation is(More)
—Flexgrid technology is now considered to be a promising solution for future high-speed network design. In this context, we need a tutorial that covers the key aspects of elastic optical networks. This tutorial paper starts with a brief introduction of the elastic optical network and its unique characteristics. The paper then moves to the architecture of(More)
A Clos-network switch architecture is attractive because of its scalability. Previously proposed implementable dispatching schemes from the first stage to the second stage, such as random dispatching (RD), are not able to achieve high throughput unless the internal bandwidth is expanded. This paper presents two round-robin-based dispatching schemes to(More)
— Input-buffered switches have been widely considered for implementing feasible packet switches. However, their matching process may not be time efficient for switches with high-speed ports. Buffered crossbars are an alternative to relax timing for packet switches with high-speed ports and to provide high-performance switching. Buffered crossbar switches(More)
Akt/PKB is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in survival when cells are exposed to different apoptotic stimuli. Aberrant activation of Akt/PKB in breast carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. The Akt signaling pathway currently attracts considerable attention as a new target for(More)
The instability of microsatellite sequences dispersed in the genome has been linked to a deficiency in cellular mismatch repair. This phenotype has been frequently observed in various human neoplasms and is regarded as a major factor in tumorigenesis. To demonstrate alterations in microsatellite sequences, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoretic(More)
BACKGROUND We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative chemotherapy with docetaxel (DTX) plus S-1 for resectable advanced gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 47 patients from 14 centers were centrally registered. Patients received DTX (35 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 15, and daily oral administration of S-1 (80(More)
PURPOSE The results and outcomes of surgical resection for esophageal carcinoma have improved remarkably in recent years; however, recurrence still frequently develops, even after complete resection. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of recurrence in this patient population. METHODS Among 208 patients, who underwent R0 resection(More)
— Combined input-crosspoint buffered switches are an alternative to relax arbitration timing and to provide high-performance switching for packet switches with high-speed ports. It has been shown that these switches, with one-cell crosspoint buffer and round-robin arbitration at input and output ports, provide 100% throughput under uniform traffic. However,(More)