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PURPOSE Mitogenic effects of seizures on granule cell progenitors in the dentate gyrus were studied in two rat models of epilepsy. We investigated which stage of epileptogenesis is critical for eliciting progenitor cell division and whether seizure-induced neuronal degeneration is responsible for the enhancement of progenitor cell division. METHODS(More)
Microglia are a major glial component of the central nervous system (CNS), play a critical role as resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the CNS, and serve as scavenger cells in the event of infection, inflammation, trauma, ischemia, and neurodegeneration in the CNS. Studies of human microglia have been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining(More)
We present a male infant with hemifacial seizures refractory to antiepileptic medication. Hemifacial spasms around the left eye were frequent during wakefulness and sleep since birth. He also had mild psychomotor retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor in the left middle cerebellar peduncle. Ictal single photon emission computed(More)
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly (HME) are major causes of intractable epilepsy in children. The probable pathogenesis of FCD and HMG is the abnormal migration and differentiation of neurons. The aim of the present study was to clarify the abnormal cytoarchitecture, based on neuronal immaturation. Tissue samples were obtained from 16(More)
Mutations in SCN2A, the gene encoding α2 subunit of the neuronal sodium channel, are associated with a variety of epilepsies: benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures (BFNIS); genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+); Dravet syndrome (DS); and some intractable childhood epilepsies. More than 10 new mutations have been identified in BFNIS, all(More)
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursor cells and is also known to exert neurotrophic activity in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about expression of EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR) in human CNS tissues. In the present study, we investigated the(More)
This article reports the case of a female with late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis who developed right and left anterior bundle branch blocks and episodic bradycardia at 23 years of age. Several episodes of supraventricular tachycardia manifested at 23 and 27 years of age. In addition, a transient second-degree atrioventricular conduction block(More)
Transmantle dysplasia is a rare type of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) characterized by expansion of the cortex from the deep white matter to the surface and in which there is a FCD IIA or IIB pathologic pattern. To characterize possible mechanisms underlying this regional disorder of radial migrating cells, we studied the expression patterns of neocortical(More)
Failure of executive function (EF) is a core symptom of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, various results have been reported and sufficient evidence is lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of children with ADHD using the Stroop task (ST) and reverse Stroop task (RST) that reflects the inhibition function of(More)
We report a 1-year 6-month-old girl with ganglioglioma in the right medial temporal lobe who showed epileptic spasms in clusters. Spasms occasionally followed a dazed and fearful gaze. Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) showed diffuse bursts of slightly irregular high-voltage spikes and slow waves without hypsarrhythmia. The findings on ictal EEG,(More)