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Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a member of a water-selective channel aquaporin-family and mainly expressed in the several structures of the brain and in the collecting duct of the kidney. Here we show its functional involvement in the water homeostasis of the ischemic brain. The expression of AQP4-mRNA is increased in the peri-infarcted cortex during the observation(More)
1. To address questions of whether long-term depression (LTD) in the visual cortex is expressed in pre- or postsynaptic sites, whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts its LTD-blocking action without involvement of GABAergic inhibition, and whether the action of BDNF is pre- or postsynaptic, we observed excitatory postsynaptic currents(More)
Glutamate toxicity and cellular calcium overload are thought to be pathophysiological key factors not only in gray matter (GM) but also in white matter (WM) ischemia. Correlates of excitotoxicity have never been directly investigated in vivo in GM and WM ischemia and reperfusion. We measured simultaneously amino acids, purines, and calcium in relation to(More)
Using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM), we examined the spatial distribution of frequency changes in magnetoencephalography signal rhythms on individual magnetic resonance images following somatosensory stimulation. SAM is a novel statistical spatial filtering method that uses an adaptive beamformer. Electrical stimulation of the right median nerve(More)
Coagulation disorders following acute head injury were investigated in 100 patients: 81 patients survived and 19 patients died. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was seen in 24%, and occurred most frequently in acute subdural haematoma, followed by contusional haematoma and contusion. Mortality rate of the patients with DIC was 58%. Level of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the hypothesis that the extent of corpus callosum injury indicates the depth of shearing lesions in the central brain structure and therefore relates to the clinical severity of diffuse axonal injury. METHODS A simple and objective procedure for semiquantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI)-the maximum signal intensity(More)
In vitro studies suggest that ischemic injury of cerebral white matter is mediated by nonsynaptic cellular mechanisms, such as Ca2+ entry into axons through reversal of the Na+ -Ca2+ exchanger. The authors investigated extracellular Ca2+ concentration in relation to tissue depolarization (direct current potential) in vivo using ion-selective electrodes in(More)
We studied the in vivo effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on nitric oxide (NO) generation. ESR spectra of nitric oxide hemoglobin (HbNO) appeared after a lag time of 2h in the blood of rats treated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IFN-gamma enhanced LPS-induced HbNO formation in rats without modifying the time lag, although IFN-gamma(More)
Partial ischemia of rat pancreas body and tail was obtained by occlusion of the celiac axis for 1 h after gastrectomy. The plasma level of nitrite plus nitrate in both systemic and portal venous blood after reperfusion was significantly higher than that after sham operation and ischemia alone. The elevation after reperfusion was significantly decreased by(More)
When 15N-isosorbide dinitrate was injected into rats, the venous blood showed a 2-line hyperfine structure in the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of NO hemoglobin (HbNO), proving generation of 15N-NO. When human blood was mixed with 15N-isosorbide dinitrate anaerobically, ESR spectra showed initially 14N-HbNO, which was then overwhelmed with the(More)