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Costimulatory signals are required for activation of immune cells, but it is not known whether they contribute to other biological systems. The development and homeostasis of the skeletal system depend on the balance between bone formation and resorption. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) regulates the differentiation of bone-resorbing cells,(More)
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with living donor liver transplantation impairs liver graft regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential cell therapeutic targets for liver disease. In this study, we demonstrate the impact of MSCs against hepatic I/R injury and hepatectomy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We used a new(More)
In vitro fabrication of functional vascularized three-dimensional tissues has been a long-standing objective in the field of tissue engineering. Here we report a technique to engineer cardiac tissues with perfusable blood vessels in vitro. Using resected tissue with a connectable artery and vein as a vascular bed, we overlay triple-layer cardiac cell sheets(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are involved in multiple aspects of pathogenesis and cellular trafficking in tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that the latest member of the C-X-C-type chemokines, CXCL17 (DMC/VCC-1), recruits immature myeloid-derived cells and enhances early tumor progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS CXCL17 was preferentially expressed(More)
Self-renewing, multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) reside in the adult mammalian spinal cord ependymal region. The current study characterized, in vitro, the native differentiation potential of spinal cord NPCs isolated from adult enhanced green fluorescence protein rats. Neurospheres were differentiated, immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed, and(More)
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was evaluated in tissues of different transgenic rodents--Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat strain [SD-Tg(GFP)Bal], W rat strain [Wistar-TgN(CAG-GFP)184ys], and M mouse strain [Tg(GFPU)5Nagy/J]--by direct fluorescence of native GFP expression and by immunohistochemistry. The constitutively expressing GFP transgenic strains(More)
Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Since some strains of swine are similar in size to(More)
Binding of class I MHC molecules (MHCI) to an inhibitory receptor, PIR-B, expressed on B cells and myeloid cells provides constitutive cellular inhibition, thus ensuring peripheral tolerance. Recent unexpected findings pointed to a novel inhibitory role of PIR-B in neurite regeneration through binding to three axonal outgrowth inhibitors of myelin,(More)
BACKGROUND Recent molecular strategies demonstrated that the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a major target site of anesthetic agents. In a previous article, the authors showed that knocking out the NMDA receptor epsilon1 subunit gene markedly reduced the hypnotic effect of ketamine in mice. In the current study, the authors examined the in vivo(More)
Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development(More)