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Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most clinically important inflammation-inducing pathogens, while Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) is nonpathogenic and hardly causes inflammation on skin. β-defensins, antimicrobial peptides, are secreted from keratinocytes constitutively or upon induction by various microorganisms. However, the(More)
Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and effects of iNOS gene ablation on the hepatocarcinogenesis associated with fibrosis caused by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet, were examined in male F344 rats and C57BL/6J wild-type and iNOS-/- mice. Western blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses revealed increased(More)
Sub-MIC levels of macrolides down-regulate bacterial virulence factors and suppress inflammatory processes. The ability of macrolides to reduce the production of pneumolysin has been shown to explain the discrepancy between in vitro resistance and outcomes with macrolides against macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we determined(More)
Shiga toxin (Stx) is a major virulence factor in infection with Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). We developed a series of linear polymers of acrylamide, each with a different density of trisaccharide of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), which is a receptor for Stx, and identified Gb3 polymers with highly clustered trisaccharides as Stx adsorbents(More)
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis in humans, sometimes resulting in fatal systemic complications. Among the known Stx family members, Stx2 is responsible for the most severe forms of disease. Stx2 binds to target cells via multivalent interactions between its B-subunit pentamer(More)
LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) plays a crucial role in various inflammatory responses. In this study, we show that LFA-1(-/-) mice are far more resistant to Listeria monocytogenes infection than LFA-1(+/-) mice. Consistent with this, we found the following: 1) the numbers of granulocytes infiltrating the liver were markedly higher in LFA-1(-/-) mice than in LFA-1(+/-)(More)
Longterm macrolide therapy (LTMT) has been employed as an effective therapy both for diffuse panbronchiolitis in Japan and for cystic fibrosis in European countries. However, effects on antibiotic susceptibility profiles of microorganisms, associated with such long-term administration of antibiotics, are of concern. We retrospectively identified 57(More)
Although macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of septic shock, NK1(+) cells have also been implicated. NK1(+) cells comprise two major populations, namely NK cells and V alpha 14(+)NKT cells. To assess the relative contributions of these NK1(+) cells to LPS-induced shock, we compared the susceptibility to LPS-induced shock of(More)
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis in humans, often results in fatal systemic complications, such as neurological damage and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Because Stx circulating in the blood is a major causative factor of these complications, the development of a Stx neutralizer(More)
To elucidate the mechanism of translocation of Candida albicans from the intestine to the bloodstream, we attempted to establish a murine model for hematogenous translocation of C. albicans using DBA-2/J mice with protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). PCM severely affected the development of the intestinal epithelia; thereby, the keratin and mucinous layers(More)