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Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine which is strongly associated with the development of diabetes in NOD mice. To test the putative involvement of IL-18 gene polymorphism in predisposition to human type 1 diabetes, the SNPs at position -607 (C/A) and -137 (G/C) in the promoter region of IL-18 gene were analyzed by sequence-specific(More)
In the Japanese population, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is as low as approximately 2 cases/year/100,000 children, which is much lower compared to that in countries with populations predominantly of Caucasian origin. However, the prevalences of anti-islet autoantibodies in patients with Japanese type 1 diabetes are 60-70% for GAD autoantibodies, 45-50%(More)
T cells isolated from islets of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are enriched for insulin-reactive cells. The great majority of these T cells recognize insulin B chain peptide (B:9-23). B:9-23 reactive T cell clones are diabetogenic and show a dramatic TCR alpha -chain restriction (predominant AV13S3). We have studied the reactivity of five different B:9-23(More)
CONTEXT Transracial studies are a powerful tool for genetic association studies of multifactorial diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The low incidence of type 1 diabetes in Asian countries, however, makes it difficult to perform large-scale studies in Asia. OBJECTIVE To overcome this, we have assembled a multicenter study group in Japan and studied the(More)
Somatic mutations in a subset of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors convert the gene for the alpha polypeptide chain (alpha s) of Gs into a putative oncogene, termed gsp. These mutations, which activate alpha s by inhibiting its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, are found in codons for either of two amino acids, each of which is(More)
OBJECTIVE The insulin-sensitizing action of troglitazone may be mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and the promotion of preadipocyte differentiation in adipose tissue on which troglitazone has depot-specific effects. We investigated the relationship between efficacy of the drug and body fat(More)
Recently, the association of CTLA4 gene polymorphism with type 1 diabetes and AITD has been reported in several populations. CTLA4 was originally reported to regulate T-cell activity and T-B cognate interaction. To investigate the role of CTLA4 in autoimmune diseases, we examined the correlation between CTLA4 gene polymorphism and the clinical(More)
To clarify heterogeneity in Japanese adult-onset type 1 diabetes, we analyzed the HLA-DR and -DQ haplotypes, depending on the clinical phenotype, and compared them with those in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (CO). The patients in a previously reported Ehime Study were divided into subgroups by the mode of onset of diabetes: 68 acute-onset type 1 diabetic(More)
In this study, we aimed to explore whether interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene-promoter polymorphisms are associated with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In all, 204 chronically HBV-infected patients were recruited in this study. Of the 204 HBV-infected patients, 43 were considered to be inactive HBV carriers based on the sustained normalization(More)
Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the(More)