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The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified(More)
Endurance exercise training promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and enhances muscle oxidative capacity, but the signaling mechanisms involved are poorly understood. To investigate this adaptive process, we generated transgenic mice that selectively express in skeletal muscle a constitutively active form of calcium/calmodulin-dependent(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) initiates smooth muscle contraction and regulates actomyosin-based cytoskeletal functions in nonmuscle cells. The net extent of RLC phosphorylation is controlled by MLCK activity relative to myosin light chain phosphatase activity. We(More)
We report three cases of ischaemic complications following direct surgery of unruptured cerebral aneurysms having necks with atherosclerotic or calcified walls. Among 30 patients we treated directly for unruptured aneurysm over the last 4 years, 6 had 8 such aneurysms. Atherosclerotic or calcified neck was a major contributor to postoperative ischaemic(More)
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) endothelin (ET)-1-like immunoactivity in 27 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was measured serially by radioimmunoassay for 2 weeks after SAH onset. Mean ET-1-like immunoactivity levels in plasma of patients with SAH were highly elevated during the whole study period, while the levels in CSF of the(More)
During skeletal muscle contraction, NO derived from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in skeletal muscle fibers or from endothelial cells (eNOS) may relax vascular smooth muscle contributing to functional hyperemia. To examine the relative importance of these pathways, smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (smRLC) phosphorylation was assessed as(More)
Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) in smooth muscle by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and dephosphorylation by myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) are subject to modulatory cascades that influence the sensitivity of RLC phosphorylation and hence contraction to intracellular Ca(2+) concentration(More)
A case of MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) which presented as migraine complicated by stroke is reported. Strokes associated with migraine have often been reported, but the mechanism remains unclear and may include a variety of pathologies. MELAS also presents with migrainous headache, vomiting, and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cardiopulmonary complications are common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and include pulmonary edema (PE). The purpose of this study was to investigate circulatory characteristics of normovolemia and normotension therapy after SAH using pulse contour analysis, and to reveal the mechanisms of PE after SAH. METHODS Pulse contour(More)