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BACKGROUND & AIMS To restore fecal continence, the weakened pressure of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) must be increased. We bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS to emulate sphincteric physiology in vitro. METHODS We cocultured human IAS circular smooth muscle with immortomouse fetal enteric neurons. We investigated the ability of(More)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a commonly used treatment for patients who cannot receive enteral nutrition, is associated with significant septic complications due in part to a loss of epithelial barrier function (EBF). While the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related epithelial changes are poorly understood, a mouse model of TPN-dependence has helped(More)
BACKGROUND The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to pressure within the anal canal and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered, intrinsically innervated, human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology,(More)
We have previously developed bioengineered three-dimensional internal anal sphincter (IAS) rings from circular smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit and human IAS. We provide proof of concept that bioengineered mouse IAS rings are neovascularized upon implantation into mice of the same strain and maintain concentric smooth muscle alignment, phenotype,(More)
PURPOSE Fecal incontinence is a common disorder that can have devastating social and psychologic consequences. However, there are no long-term ideal solutions for such patients. Although loss of continence is multifactorial, the integrity of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) has particular significance. We previously described the development of(More)
PURPOSE Our laboratory has developed and implanted a novel bioengineered internal anal sphincter (IAS) to treat anal incontinence. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been used in mice; however, the optimal growth factor for successful IAS implantation is unclear. This study compares several growth factors in order to optimize IAS viability and(More)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) results in a number of derangements to the intestinal epithelium, including a loss of epithelial barrier function (EBF). As TPN supplemented with glutamine has been thought to prevent this loss, this article further defined the impact of glutamine on EBF, and investigated potential mechanisms that contributed to the(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Despite a good understanding of short-term outcomes of the longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) and serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedures, limited data exist on long-term complications. METHODS This is a 15-year single-institution retrospective chart review of patients who underwent an intestinal(More)
The medical records of all brain dead patients (n = 228) at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto from January 1990 to December 1999 were reviewed. A radionuclide cerebral blood flow study (RCBFS) as a supportive and confirmatory test was performed on 27 patients and the clinical diagnosis of brain death was confirmed on all of them. A RCBFS was performed(More)