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Various portable electronic devices now have wireless interfaces as standard equipment. Such interfaces will be common in ad hoc networks, relaying packets mutually among users' nodes in a network without base stations. However, a fear is emerging of selfish nodes in ad hoc networks. These nodes take advantage of other ones and do not cooperate with others,(More)
This paper describes a new standpoint to further understanding the evolvability of A-life systems, that is, quantifi-cation of the dependency of system constituents. If a system exhibits evolutionary activity, new events, including the development or extinction of systems constituents, may emerge one after the other. The occurrence of new events would(More)
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