The cochlear microphonic measured in scala tympani referenced to that at the round window is used to determine characteristic frequency (CF) at two locations in an age-graded series of Mongolian gerbils. No significant ontogenic shift in CF is seen at a second turn location, while an approximately 1.5 octave shift is seen in the mid-basal turn.
The position of an auditory hair cell along the length of the cochlea determines the sound frequency to which it is most sensitive. Receptors located near the proximal end (base) of the cochlea are maximally stimulated by high-frequency sounds; those occupying successively more distal (apical) positions respond best to progressively lower frequencies. At… (More)
Manipulators mounted on unmanned submarines are inherently kinematically redundant. Such systems, which are normally controlled by operators from within a vessel on the sea, can follow a desired path both by moving its manipulator or the submarine itself. Due to this redundancy one might control the system such that it tracks the desired path and fulfil… (More)