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Incorporation of all important atom migration driving forces into the mass balance equation and its solution together with solution of the coupled electromagnetics, heat transfer, and elasticity problems allows one to simulate electromigration (EM)-induced degradation in a variety of dual-inlaid Cu interconnect segments characterized by different dominant(More)
We demonstrate full-field X-ray microscopy using crossed multilayer Laue lenses (MLL). Two partial MLLs are prepared out of a 48 μm high multilayer stack consisting of 2451 alternating zones of WSi2 and Si. They are assembled perpendicularly in series to obtain two-dimensional imaging. Experiments are done in a laboratory X-ray microscope using Cu-Kα(More)
The indentation modulus of thin films of porous organosilicate glass with a nominal porosity content of 30% and thicknesses of 350nm, 200nm, and 46nm is determined with help of atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM). This scanning probe microscopy based technique provides the highest possible depth resolution. The values of the indentation modulus obtained(More)
We have used the atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) method to determine the indentation modulus of nanoporous thin-film materials with ultralow values of dielectric permittivity (dielectric constant k < 2.4). The AFAM method is based on the contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and as such is able to characterize materials with high spatial(More)
Managing the emerging internal mechanical stress in chips, particularly if they are 3D stacked, is a key task to maintain performance and reliability of microelectronic products. Hence, a strong need of a physics based simulation methodology emerges. This physics-based simulation, however, requires material parameters with high accuracy. A full-chip(More)
Valence EELS combined with STEM provides an approach to determine the dielectric constant of materials in the optical range of frequencies. The paper describes the experimental procedure and discusses the critical aspects of valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) treatment. In particular, the relativistic losses might affect strongly the results,(More)
In this paper, EM-induced degradation processes and failure in on-chip interconnects are discussed based on experimental studies. In-situ microscopy studies at embedded via/line dual inlaid copper interconnect test structures show that void formation and evolution depend on both interface bonding and microstructure. In future, copper microstructure becomes(More)
Germanium is a promising material for future very large scale integration transistors, due to its superior hole mobility. However, germanium-based devices typically suffer from high reverse junction leakage due to the low band-gap energy of 0.66 eV and therefore are characterized by high static power dissipation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate(More)
Various platinum-free electrocatalysts have been explored for hydrogen evolution reaction in acidic solutions. However, in economical water-alkali electrolysers, sluggish water dissociation kinetics (Volmer step) on platinum-free electrocatalysts results in poor hydrogen-production activities. Here we report a MoNi4 electrocatalyst supported by MoO2 cuboids(More)