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The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is well established but the agent(s) that incite inflammation in the artery wall remain largely unknown. Germ-free animals are susceptible to atherosclerosis, suggesting that endogenous substances initiate the inflammation. Mature atherosclerotic lesions contain macroscopic deposits of cholesterol crystals in the(More)
Invasive infection with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria often results in septic shock and death. The basis for the earliest steps in innate immune response to Gram-positive bacterial infection is poorly understood. The LPS component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall appears to activate cells via CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4.(More)
Recent studies have implicated a family of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the activation of macrophages by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial products. We have previously shown that different TLR proteins mediate cellular activation by the distinct CD14 ligands Gram-negative bacterial LPS and mycobacterial glycolipid lipoarabinomannan (LAM).(More)
Mammalian responses to LPS require the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and MD-2. We expressed fluorescent TLR4 in cell lines and found that TLR4 densely localized to the surface and the Golgi. Similar distributions were observed in human monocytes. Confocal imaging revealed rapid recycling of TLR4-CD14-MD-2 complexes between the Golgi and(More)
Microbial DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). We have found that TLR9 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Because there is no precedent for immune receptor signaling in the ER, we investigated how TLR9 is activated. We show that CpG DNA binds(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are signal transducers for lipopolysaccharide, the major proinflammatory constituent in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing TLR2 but not those(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass is known to mediate an inflammatory response. The stress-inducible heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 has been detected in myocardial cells after CABG, and toll-like receptors (TLRs) are suggested as putative signaling receptors for the HSPs, mediating synthesis of inflammatory(More)
Mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins are new members of the IL-1 receptor family that participate in activation of cells by bacteria and bacterial products. Several recent reports indicate that TLR proteins mediate cellular activation by bacterial LPS via a signaling pathway that is largely shared by the type I IL-1 receptor. We previously showed(More)
At mammalian body temperature, the plague bacillus Yersinia pestis synthesizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–lipid A with poor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–stimulating activity. To address the effect of weak TLR4 stimulation on virulence, we modified Y. pestis to produce a potent TLR4-stimulating LPS. Modified Y. pestis was completely avirulent after subcutaneous(More)
Inflammatory cytokines may play a pathogenic role in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). Elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines have been reported in CHF, but most studies have focused on only a few cytokine parameters. However, the activity of these cytokines are modulated by soluble cytokine receptors and cytokines with(More)