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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by synthesis of oligoclonal immunoglobulins and the presence of B-cell clonal expansions in the central nervous system (CNS). Because ectopic lymphoid tissue generated at sites of chronic inflammation is thought to be important in sustaining immunopathological processes, we have investigated whether structures(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), dendritic cells (DCs) recruited to the central nervous system (CNS) are thought to be involved in the regulation of autoimmune responses directed against myelin antigens. To better understand the role of DCs in CNS inflammation, we performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of DC maturation markers and of DC relationship(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen-regulating crucial epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during embryonic development, but its signalling pathway is considered generally silent in post-natal life. In this study, we demonstrate that Shh is de novo expressed after injury and during regeneration of the adult skeletal muscle. Shh expression is followed by(More)
BACKGROUND Expression levels of CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, and of the α-subunit of the dystroglycan (α-DG) complex, have been previously reported to be altered in colorectal cancers. METHODS Expression levels of CD133 and α-DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of colon cancers and their prognostic significance was evaluated. (More)
OBJECTIVE High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is a nuclear DNA-binding protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses and promoting tissue repair and angiogenesis. Diabetic human and mouse tissues contain lower levels of HMGB1 than their normoglycemic counterparts. Deficient angiogenesis after ischemia contributes to worse(More)
BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly associated with both microvascular and macrovascular complications and a strong correlation exists between glycaemic control and the incidence and progression of vascular complications. Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) ligand indicated for therapy of type(More)
Cilostazol is effective for the treatment of peripheral ischemia. This compound has several beneficial effects on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and endothelial cells, and we recently found that it enhances collateral blood flow in the ischemic hind limbs of mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, a receptor for thiazolidinediones,(More)
Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by morphological and genetic complexities, as well as diffuse infiltration into normal brain parenchyma. Within gliomas, microglia/macrophages represent the largest tumor-infiltrating cell population, contributing by at least one-third to the total tumor mass. Bi-directional interactions between(More)
BACKGROUND The object of this study was to investigate the potential role of FGF23 on plaque stability in type 2 diabetic patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. METHODS In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed FGF23 serum level in 361 type 2 diabetic patients with internal carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy(More)
Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7(More)