Egest J. Pone

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The cytidine deaminase AID (encoded by Aicda in mice and AICDA in humans) is critical for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Here we show that AID expression was induced by the HoxC4 homeodomain transcription factor, which bound to a highly conserved HoxC4-Oct site in the Aicda or AICDA promoter. This site(More)
Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus is central to the maturation of the antibody response and crucially requires the cytidine deaminase AID. CSR involves changes in the chromatin state and the transcriptional activation of the IGH locus at the upstream and downstream switch (S) regions that are to undergo S-S(More)
The delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major challenge in part due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, cell-derived vesicles, particularly exosomes, have emerged as an attractive vehicle for targeting drugs to the brain, but whether or how they cross the BBB remains unclear. Here, we investigated(More)
Differentiation of naïve B cells, including immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination, is critical for the immune response and depends on the extensive integration of signals from the B-cell receptor (BCR), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and cytokine receptors. TLRs and BCR synergize to induce class-switch DNA(More)
Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) is the crucial mechanism diversifying the biological effector functions of antibodies. Generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), particularly staggered DSBs, in switch (S) regions of the upstream and downstream CH genes involved in the specific recombination process is an absolute requirement for(More)
By diversifying antibody biological effector functions, class switch DNA recombination has a central role in the maturation of the antibody response. Here we show that BCR-signalling synergizes with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling to induce class switch DNA recombination. BCR-signalling activates the non-canonical NF-κB pathway and enhances the(More)
Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) is the mechanism that diversifies the biological effector functions of antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a key protein in CSR, targets immunoglobulin H (IgH) switch regions, which contain 5'-AGCT-3' repeats in their core. How AID is recruited to switch regions remains unclear. Here we show that(More)
Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), which require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), and plasma cell differentiation, which requires B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), are critical for the generation of class-switched and hypermutated (mature) Ab and autoantibody responses. We show that histone(More)
Stem cells are critical to maintaining steady-state organ homeostasis and regenerating injured tissues. Recent intriguing reports implicate extracellular vesicles (EVs) as carriers for the distribution of morphogens and growth and differentiation factors from tissue parenchymal cells to stem cells, and conversely, stem cell-derived EVs carrying certain(More)
Multivalent interactions occur frequently in nature, where they mediate high-affinity interactions between cells, proteins, or molecules. Here, we report on a method to generate multivalent aptamers (Multi-Aptamers) that target L-selectin function using rolling circle amplification (RCA). We find that the L-selectin Multi-Aptamers have increased affinity(More)