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Clinical studies consistently demonstrate that a single sub-psychomimetic dose of ketamine, an ionotropic glutamatergic NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) antagonist, produces fast-acting antidepressant responses in patients suffering from major depressive disorder, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Depressed patients report the alleviation(More)
Synapses, the junctions between nerve cells through which they communicate, are formed by the coordinated assembly and tight attachment of pre- and postsynaptic specializations. We now show that SynCAM is a brain-specific, immunoglobulin domain-containing protein that binds to intracellular PDZ-domain proteins and functions as a homophilic cell adhesion(More)
SNAREs (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptors) are generally acknowledged as central components of membrane fusion reactions, but their precise function has remained enigmatic. Competing hypotheses suggest roles for SNAREs in mediating the specificity of fusion, catalyzing fusion, or actually executing fusion. We generated knockout mice lacking(More)
Neuroligins enhance synapse formation in vitro, but surprisingly are not required for the generation of synapses in vivo. We now show that in cultured neurons, neuroligin-1 overexpression increases excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptic responses, and potentiates synaptic NMDAR/AMPAR ratios. In contrast, neuroligin-2 overexpression increases inhibitory,(More)
Functional presynaptic vesicles have been subdivided into readily releasable (RRP) and reserve (RP) pools. We studied recycling properties of RRP vesicles through differential retention of FM1-43 and FM2-10 and by varying the time window for FM dye uptake. Both approaches indicated that vesicles residing in the RRP underwent rapid endocytosis (tau(More)
Spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion is a common property of all synapses. To trace the origin of spontaneously fused vesicles in hippocampal synapses, we tagged vesicles with fluorescent styryl dyes, antibodies against synaptotagmin-1, or horseradish peroxidase. We could show that synaptic vesicles recycle at rest, and after spontaneous exo-endocytosis,(More)
Presynaptic nerve terminals often contain as few as a hundred vesicles and so must recycle them soon after exocytosis to preserve synaptic transmission and presynaptic morphology during repetitive firing. The kinetics and mechanisms of vesicular endocytosis and repriming have therefore been studied. Vesicles in hippocampal nerve terminals can become(More)
The tiny nerve terminals of central synapses contain far fewer vesicles than preparations commonly used for analysis of neurosecretion. Photoconversion of vesicles rendered fluorescent with the dye FM1-43 directly identified vesicles capable of engaging in exo-endocytotic recycling following stimulated Ca(2+) entry. This recycling pool typically contained(More)
Reelin, a large protein that regulates neuronal migration during embryonic development, activates a conserved signaling pathway that requires its receptors, very low-density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein E receptor 2, the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Disabled-1 (Dab1), and Src family kinases (SFK). Reelin also markedly enhances long-term(More)
We studied the emergence of vesicle pool organization at developing hippocampal synapses by monitoring vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release as well as examining electron micrographs. Our analysis suggests that presynaptic boutons go through three distinct functional states to mature. At the onset the synapses lack readily releasable vesicles(More)