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Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
More than 30% of human protein-coding genes form hereditary complex genome architectures composed of sense-antisense (SA) gene pairs (SAGPs) transcribing their RNAs from both strands of a given locus. Such architectures represent important novel components of genome complexity contributing to gene expression deregulation in cancer cells. Therefore, the(More)
Retinoic acid (RA), the active vitamin-A-metabolite, has well-established functions in skin homeostasis and in the immune system. Skin mast cells (MCs) combine traits of both structures, being of hematopoietic origin, but functional in the skin environment. It remains largely unknown whether mature MCs are targeted by the retinoid network. Here, we(More)
SUMMARY Binding free energy calculations obtained through molecular dynamics simulations reflect intermolecular interaction states through a series of independent snapshots. Typically, the free energies of multiple simulated series (each with slightly different starting conditions) need to be estimated. Previous approaches carry out this task by moving(More)
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