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The last decade has witnessed a marked increase in our understanding of the importance of gut hormones in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In particular, the discovery that the gut hormone peptide YY 3-36 (PYY3-36) reduced feeding in obese rodents and humans fuelled interest in the role of PYY3-36 in body weight regulation. Pharmacological and genetic(More)
Polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with human obesity and obesity-prone behaviors, including increased food intake and a preference for energy-dense foods. FTO demethylates N6-methyladenosine, a potential regulatory RNA modification, but the mechanisms by which FTO predisposes humans to obesity remain unclear. In(More)
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment modality for obesity, resulting in durable weight loss and amelioration of obesity-associated comorbidities, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery occur independently of weight loss. There is increasing evidence that surgically induced alterations(More)
Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century with 1.6 billion adults currently classified as being overweight and 400 million as obese. Obesity is causally associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and certain forms of cancer and is now one of the leading causes of(More)
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) reduces appetite and induces significant and sustainable weight loss. Circulating gut hormones changes engendered by LRYGBP are implicated in mediating these beneficial effects. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is advocated as an alternative to LRYGBP, with comparable short-term weight loss and metabolic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Gut hormones represent attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, controversy surrounds the effects that adiposity, dietary manipulations, and bariatric surgery have on their circulating concentrations. We sought to determine whether these discrepancies are due to methodologic differences. (More)
OBJECTIVE Bariatric surgery causes durable weight loss. Gut hormones are implicated in obesity pathogenesis, dietary failure, and mediating gastrointestinal bypass (GIBP) surgery weight loss. In mice, we determined the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO), subsequent dieting, and GIBP surgery on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1(More)
Acute inflammation is traditionally characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) influx followed by phagocytosing macrophage (Mφs) that clear injurious stimuli leading to resolution and tissue homeostasis. However, using the peritoneal cavity, we found that although innate immune-mediated responses to low-dose zymosan or bacteria resolve within days,(More)
The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35.0 kg/m(2), is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that(More)
High-intensity intermittent exercise induces physiological adaptations similar to energy-matched continuous exercise, but the comparative appetite and energy balance responses are unknown. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.7 ± 3.0 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 52.4 ± 7.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials(More)