Efrat Refaeli

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BACKGROUND AND AIM Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is characterized by orbital T cell infiltration and local release of proinflammatory cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the involvement of baseline regulatory T (Treg) cells and rabbit anti-T lymphocyte globulin (rATG)-induced Treg cells in GO. DESIGN Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from seven patients(More)
We show here that the anti-T lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG) can induce Treg cells following 24-h incubation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The ATG-induced Treg cells express known cell surface markers (e.g., CD25, FoxP3) and suppress the proliferation of autologous responder PBMCs, stimulated with allogeneic PBMCs, when added into the(More)
An electrically controlled holographic switch is proposed as a building block for a free-space optical interconnection network. The switch is based on the voltage-controlled photorefractive effect in KLTN crystals at the paraelectric phase. It is built of electrically controlled Bragg gratings stored in the volume of the crystal. A compact switch that(More)
We describe a new approach for constructing large-scale artificial neural networks. The novelty of our approach is based on the concept of electroholography (EH), which permits interconnecting of electronic neurons by minute-volume holograms, using the voltage-controlled photorefractive effect in paraelectric crystals. Crystals of potassium lithium(More)
Electric-field multiplexing (EFM) results from the tuning of the effective wavelength of the light beam inside a photorefractive crystal. This tuning results from the application of an external electric field to the crystal during holographic recording. We demonstrate the high Bragg selectivity of this multiplexing technique in paraelectric crystals and(More)
High holographic storage capacity of paraelectric K(1-x)Lix Ta(1-y) Nby O(3):Cu , V using the voltage-controlled photorefractive effect is experimentally demonstrated. Measurements of the M/# for various writing angles and reading fields are presented. In particular, it is shown that 128 angularly multiplexed holograms, written by two plane-wave beams(More)
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