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Members of the Acr3 family of arsenite permeases confer resistance to trivalent arsenic by extrusion from cells, with members in every phylogenetic domain. In this study bacterial Acr3 homologues from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens and Corynebacterium glutamicum were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Modification of a single cysteine residue that is(More)
Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow in media containing up to 12 mM arsenite and 500 mM arsenate and is one of the most arsenic-resistant microorganisms described to date. Two operons (ars1 and ars2) involved in arsenate and arsenite resistance have been identified in the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The operons ars1 and(More)
We identified the first enzymes that use mycothiol and mycoredoxin in a thiol/disulfide redox cascade. The enzymes are two arsenate reductases from Corynebacterium glutamicum (Cg_ArsC1 and Cg_ArsC2), which play a key role in the defense against arsenate. In vivo knockouts showed that the genes for Cg_ArsC1 and Cg_ArsC2 and those of the enzymes of the(More)
The genes involved in gluconate catabolism (gntP and gntK) in Corynebacterium glutamicum are scattered in the chromosome, and no regulatory genes are apparently associated with them, in contrast with the organization of the gnt operon in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In C. glutamicum, gntP and gntK are essential genes when gluconate is the only(More)
Of the five promoters detected for the ftsZ gene in Corynebacterium glutamicum, three were located within the coding region of the upstream ftsQ gene and two within the intergenic ftsQ-ftsZ region. The most distant ftsZ promoter showed activity in Escherichia coli and controlled high-level transcriptional expression of ftsZ in C. glutamicum. Quantitative(More)
A novel method for the retention of arsenate [As(V)] combining time-controlled solid-phase extraction with living bacterial biomass is presented. As(V) retention was carried out by exposing the extractant, consisting of a living double-mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ArsC1-C2, to the sample for a retention time of 1-7min, before the arsenic(More)
Arsenic is an extremely toxic metalloid that, when present in high concentrations, severely threatens the biota and human health. Arsenic contamination of soil, water, and air is a global growing environmental problem due to leaching from geological formations, the burning of fossil fuels, wastes generated by the gold mining industry present in uncontrolled(More)
The actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum grows as rod-shaped cells by zonal peptidoglycan synthesis at the cell poles. In this bacterium, experimental depletion of the polar DivIVA protein (DivIVA(Cg)) resulted in the inhibition of polar growth; consequently, these cells exhibited a coccoid morphology. This result demonstrated that DivIVA is required for(More)
Expression of the genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Members of the ArsR/SmtB family of small metalloregulatory proteins respond to transition metals, heavy metals, and metalloids, including As(III), Sb(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Ni(II). These homodimeric repressors(More)
Bacterial cell growth and cell division are highly complicated and diversified biological processes. In most rod-shaped bacteria, actin-like MreB homologues produce helicoidal structures along the cell that support elongation of the lateral cell wall. An exception to this rule is peptidoglycan synthesis in the rod-shaped actinomycete Corynebacterium(More)