Effie Mouhtouris

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The major obstacle to successful discordant xenotransplantation is the phenomenon of hyperacute rejection (HAR). In the pig-to-primate discordant transplant setting, HAR results from the deposition of high-titre anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies and complement activation leading to endothelial cell destruction and rapid graft failure. To overcome HAR, we(More)
The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3), is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT) cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3)Gal.(More)
BACKGROUND Many immunologically important interactions are mediated by leukocyte recognition of carbohydrates via cell surface receptors. Uncharacterized receptors on human natural killer (NK) cells interact with ligands containing the terminal Galalpha(1,3)Gal xenoepitope. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize carbohydrate binding proteins(More)
When alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase cDNA is expressed in cells that normally express large amounts of the terminal carbohydrate Galalpha(1,3)Gal, and therefore the alpha(1,3)galactosyltransferase (GT), the Galalpha(1,3)Gal almost disappears, indicating that the presence of the alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase (HT) gene/enzyme alters the synthesis of(More)
COS cells transiently transfected with human CD48 were found to bind human PBL, whereas mock or CD7-transfected COS cells failed to bind human lymphocytes. Binding of PBL to CD48 transfectants was almost totally inhibited by either CD48 mAb pretreatment of COS cells or CD2 mAb pretreatment of PBL, implying an interaction between CD2 and CD48. This(More)
Naturally occurring anti-carbohydrate antibodies play a major role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. To elicit an anti-carbohydrate immune response, glycoproteins can be processed to glycopeptides and presented by the classical antigen-presenting molecules, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II. In contrast, much less is(More)
BACKGROUND The Gal alpha(1,3)Gal epitope is of interest as, in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation, it is the major target of naturally occurring human IgM and IgG antibodies, leading to hyperacute rejection. Human and Old World monkeys make anti-Gal alpha(1,3)Gal antibodies as they lack a functional gene and do not express Gal alpha(1,3)Gal. Interestingly,(More)
The existence of at least two distinct alpha 1,2fucosyltransferases has been postulated for many years, and recently confirmed in humans with the cloning of the human and rabbit secretor type alpha 1,2fucosyltransferase. We now describe the cloning and analysis of PFUT2, the pig secretor type alpha 1,2fucosyltransferase, which shows a high level of amino(More)
BACKGROUND Blockade of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) pathway has been shown to prolong allograft survival; however, its utility in xenotransplantation is unknown. We hypothesize that local expression of ICOS-Ig by the xenograft will suppress the T-cell response resulting in significant prolonged graft survival. METHODS Pig iliac artery endothelial(More)
Alpha(1,3)Galactosyltransferase (GT) is a Golgi-localized enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a terminal galactose to N-acetyllactosamine to create Galalpha(1,3)Gal. This glycosyltransferase has been studied extensively because the Galalpha(1,3)Gal epitope is involved in hyperacute rejection of pig-to-human xenotransplants. The original crystal structure(More)