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Src homology 2 (SH2) domains recognize phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing sequences and thereby mediate their association to ligands. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase, in which mutations cause a hereditary immunodeficiency disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Mutations have been found in all Btk domains, including(More)
Sulfa antibiotics (sulfonamides) are a group of molecules sharing the p-aminobenzenesulfonamide moiety. Sulfonamides are used in veterinary and human medicine. Sometimes, the meat or milk of medicated animals is contaminated with residual sulfonamides. Current analytical methods for sulfonamides are unfit for screening of food, because they are either too(More)
Stability of single-chain Fvs (scFvs) can be improved by mutagenesis followed by phage display selection where the unstable variants are first inactivated by, for example, denaturing treatment. Here we describe a modified strategy for the selection of stabilized antibody fragments by phage display, based on denaturation under reducing conditions. This(More)
Affinity maturation is often applied to improve the properties of antibodies isolated from universal antibody libraries in vitro. A synthetic human scFv antibody library was constructed in single immunoglobulin framework to enable rapid affinity maturation by updated Kunkel's mutagenesis. The initial diversity was generated predominantly in the V(H) domain(More)
In directed evolution experiments, a single randomization scheme of an antibody gene does not provide optimal diversity for recognition of all sizes of antigens. In this study, we have expanded the recognition potential of our universal library, termed ScFvP, with a second distinct diversification scheme. In the second library, termed ScFvM, diversity was(More)
Primer extension mutagenesis is a popular tool to create libraries for in vitro evolution experiments. Here we describe a further improvement of the method described by T.A. Kunkel using uracil-containing single-stranded DNA as the template for the primer extension by additional uracil-DNA glycosylase treatment and rolling circle amplification (RCA) steps.(More)
Sulfa antibiotics (sulfonamides) are used in veterinary and human medicine for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Veterinary use can result in foodstuffs derived from animals being contaminated with residual sulfonamides. Current sulfonamide-screening methods (mainly based on bacterial growth inhibition) are slow and inaccurate, since sensitivities of(More)
OBJECTIVE In epidemiological studies plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are found to correlate inversely with atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. HDL consists of different subpopulations and they vary in their anti-atherogenic properties. The aim of this study is to isolate coronary artery disease (CAD) specific anti-HDL(More)
Phage display is a commonly used selection technique in protein engineering, but not all proteins can be expressed on phage. Here, we describe the expression of a cytoplasmic homodimeric enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) on M13 phage, established by protein engineering of DHPS. The strategy included replacement of cysteine residues and screening for(More)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase consisting of N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain followed by Tec homology (TH) domain, Src homology 3 and 2 (SH3 and SH2) domains, and a C-terminal kinase domain. Mutations in the human BTK gene cause the severe immunodeficiency disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). The(More)