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Extracellular recordings of responses to tone-burst stimulation were used to determine the tonotopic organization of n. magnocellularis (NM) and n. laminaris (NL) in hatching chickens. NM cells show "primary-like" response patterns to ipsilateral stimulation, and are arranged in dorso-ventral isofrequency columns. Units responding to the highest frequency(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) provide a neural substrate for azimuthal sound localization. We examined the optimal stimuli for NL neurons to maintain high discharge rates, reliable phase-locking, and sensitivity to time-delayed stimuli. Whole-cell recordings were performed in chick [embryonic days 19-21 (E19-E21)] NL neurons using an in vitro(More)
Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for(More)
Third-order auditory neurons in the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) are the first to receive binaural input. In the chick, NL consists of a monolayer of neurons with polarized dendritic arbors oriented dorsally and ventrally. Afferents from second-order neurons in the ipsilateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM) innervate the dorsal dendrites of NL neurons,(More)
This study examined the development of individual axon terminal fields in n. laminaris (NL) of the chicken brainstem. In their mature form axons from the nucleus magnocellularis (NM), second-order auditory neurons in the chicken brainstem, project bilaterally onto the NL. Axons from the ipsilateral and contralateral NM neurons form spatially segregated,(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus magnocellularis (NM) relay auditory information from the VIIIth nerve to other parts of the auditory system. To examine the cellular properties that permit NM neurons to transmit reliably the temporal characteristics of the acoustic stimulus, we performed whole-cell recordings in neurons of the chick NM using an in vitro thin(More)
Male birds of age-limited song-learning species develop their full song repertoires in the first year of life. For this type of song learner, once song is stabilized in adulthood, it is highly stereotyped and stable over time. Traditionally, it has been believed that age-limited song learners do not depend on auditory feedback for the maintenance of adult(More)
Neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus are depolarized by GABAergic synaptic input. We recorded GABAergic synaptic currents using the gramicidin-perforated-patch method and found their reversal potential (V(rev)) to be depolarized relative to spike threshold, which is surprising given that these inputs are inhibitory. Depolarizing IPSPs (dIPSPs) are kept(More)
Developmental changes that influence the results of removal of afferent input on the survival of neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of mice were examined with the hope of providing a suitable model for understanding the cellular and molecular basis for these developmental changes in susceptibility. We performed unilateral cochlear ablation(More)
The neurons of the cochlear ganglion transmit acoustic information between the inner ear and the brain. These placodally derived neurons must produce a topographically precise pattern of connections in both the inner ear and the brain. In this review, we consider the current state of knowledge concerning the development of these neurons, their peripheral(More)