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Third-order auditory neurons in the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) are the first to receive binaural input. In the chick, NL consists of a monolayer of neurons with polarized dendritic arbors oriented dorsally and ventrally. Afferents from second-order neurons in the ipsilateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM) innervate the dorsal dendrites of NL neurons,(More)
Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for(More)
Extracellular recordings of responses to tone-burst stimulation were used to determine the tonotopic organization of n. magnocellularis (NM) and n. laminaris (NL) in hatching chickens. NM cells show "primary-like" response patterns to ipsilateral stimulation, and are arranged in dorso-ventral isofrequency columns. Units responding to the highest frequency(More)
Neurons of the avian nucleus laminaris (NL) provide a neural substrate for azimuthal sound localization. We examined the optimal stimuli for NL neurons to maintain high discharge rates, reliable phase-locking, and sensitivity to time-delayed stimuli. Whole-cell recordings were performed in chick [embryonic days 19-21 (E19-E21)] NL neurons using an in vitro(More)
Neurons in the avian cochlear nucleus are depolarized by GABAergic synaptic input. We recorded GABAergic synaptic currents using the gramicidin-perforated-patch method and found their reversal potential (V(rev)) to be depolarized relative to spike threshold, which is surprising given that these inputs are inhibitory. Depolarizing IPSPs (dIPSPs) are kept(More)
Developmental changes that influence the results of removal of afferent input on the survival of neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) of mice were examined with the hope of providing a suitable model for understanding the cellular and molecular basis for these developmental changes in susceptibility. We performed unilateral cochlear ablation(More)
In the avian auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) functions to relay phase-locked signals to nucleus laminaris for binaural coincidence detection. Although many studies have revealed that NM neurons exhibit intrinsic physiological and anatomical specializations for this purpose, the role of inhibition has not been fully explored. The present(More)
This study examined the development of individual axon terminal fields in n. laminaris (NL) of the chicken brainstem. In their mature form axons from the nucleus magnocellularis (NM), second-order auditory neurons in the chicken brainstem, project bilaterally onto the NL. Axons from the ipsilateral and contralateral NM neurons form spatially segregated,(More)
The consequences of cochlea removal on neuron number and soma cross-sectional area were examined in the second order auditory nucleus (n. magnocellularis) of chickens. Both the age of the subjects at the time of cochlea (basilar papilla) removal (1-66 weeks) and the survival period (1-45 days) were varied. Neuron number and soma cross-sectional area were(More)
The tonotopic and topographic organization of the bilateral projection from second-order auditory neurons of nucleus magnocellularis (NM) to nucleus laminaris (NL) was examined in young chickens. In one group of birds, the NM axons which innvervate the contralateral NL were severed by cutting the crossed dorsal cochlear tract at the midline. Heavy terminal(More)