Edwin S Levitan

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Neuropeptides are slowly released from a limited pool of secretory granules. To visualize this process, GFP-tagged preproatrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was expressed in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells. Biochemical and microfluorimetric experiments demonstrate that proANF-EGFP is packaged in granules that accumulate at neurite endings and is released(More)
Cone photoreceptors tonically release neurotransmitter in the dark through a continuous cycle of exocytosis and endocytosis. Here, using the synaptic vesicle marker FM1-43, we elucidate specialized features of the vesicle cycle. Unlike retinal bipolar cell terminals, where stimulation triggers bulk membrane retrieval, cone terminals appear to exclusively(More)
Neuropeptides are slowly released from a limited pool of secretory vesicles. Despite decades of research, the composition of this pool has remained unknown. Endocrine cell studies support the hypothesis that a population of docked vesicles supports the first minutes of hormone release. However, it has been proposed that mobile cytoplasmic vesicles dominate(More)
Ca(v)1.3 (alpha 1D) L-type Ca(2+) channels have been implicated in substantia nigra (SN) dopamine (DA) neuron pacemaking and vulnerability to Parkinson's disease. These effects may arise from the depolarizing current and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation produced by Ca(v)1.3 channels at subthreshold membrane potentials. However, the assumption that the Ca(2+)(More)
Neuropeptides affect an extremely diverse set of physiological processes. Neuropeptides are often coreleased with neurotransmitters but, unlike neurotransmitters, the neuropeptide target cells may be distant from the site(s) of secretion. Thus, it is often difficult to measure the amount of neuropeptide release in vivo by electrophysiological methods. Here(More)
Cellular K+ efflux is a requisite event in the unfolding of apoptosis programs across many types of cells and death-inducing stimuli; however, the molecular identities of the ion channels mediating this key event have remained undefined. Here, we show that Kv2.1-encoded K+ channels are responsible for the expression of apoptosis in cortical neurons in(More)
We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study quantitatively the motion and distribution of secretory granules near the plasma membrane (PM) of living bovine chromaffin cells. Within the approximately 300-nm region measurably illuminated by the evanescent field resulting from total internal reflection, granules are preferentially(More)
Despite the importance of neuropeptide release, which is evoked by long bouts of action potential activity and which regulates behavior, peptidergic vesicle movement has not been examined in living nerve terminals. Previous in vitro studies have found that secretory vesicle motion at many sites of release is constitutive: Ca(2+) does not affect the movement(More)
Although it has been postulated that vesicle mobility is increased to enhance release of transmitters and neuropeptides, the mechanism responsible for increasing vesicle motion in nerve terminals and the effect of perturbing this mobilization on synaptic plasticity are unknown. Here, green fluorescent protein-tagged dense-core vesicles (DCVs) are imaged in(More)
In an attempt to define the molecular basis of the functional diversity of K+ channels, we have isolated overlapping rat brain cDNAs that encoded a neuronal delayed rectifier K+ channel, K,4, that is structurally related to the Drosophila Shaw protein. Unlike previously characterized mammalian K+ channel genes, which each contain a single protein-coding(More)