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Heterozygous somatic mutations in the genes encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were recently discovered in human neoplastic disorders. These mutations disable the enzymes' normal ability to convert isocitrate to 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) and confer on the enzymes a new function: the ability to convert 2-KG to d-2-hydroxyglutarate(More)
Iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs) are important prosthetic groups that define the functions of many proteins. Proteins with ISCs (called iron-sulfur or Fe-S proteins) are present in mitochondria, the cytosol, the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus. They participate in various biological pathways including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the citric acid(More)
Background.  Variants of several genes encoding transcription modulators, signal transduction, and structural proteins are known to cause Mendelian congenital heart disease (CHD). NKX2-5 and GATA4 were the first CHD-causing genes identified by linkage analysis in large affected families. Mutations of TBX5 cause Holt-Oram syndrome, which includes CHD as a(More)
Elucidating the function of highly conserved regulatory sequences is a significant challenge in genomics today. Certain intragenic highly conserved elements have been associated with regulating levels of core components of the spliceosome and alternative splicing of downstream genes. Here we identify mutations in one such element, a regulatory alternative(More)
Pierpont syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with learning disability first described in 1998. There are only three patients with Pierpont syndrome who have previously been published in the literature. Details of a series of patients with features of this condition were therefore obtained retrospectively to better characterize its key(More)
BACKGROUND Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition characterized by short stature, delays in expressive language, and a distinctive facial appearance. Recently, heterozygous truncating mutations in SRCAP were determined to be disease-causing. With the availability of a DNA based confirmatory test, we set forth to define the clinical features of(More)
A rapid response by the public-health and research communities to infectious viral diseases depends on the reproducible tracking and analysis of pathogen isolates. A standard strain-naming convention for Zika virus sequences is therefore urgently needed. This will ensure that the exchange and interpretation of data is unambiguous in efforts to contain the(More)
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with clinical conditions including cryptogenic stroke, migraine and varicose veins. Data from studies in humans and mouse suggest that PFO and the secundum form of atrial septal defect (ASDII) exist in an anatomical continuum of septal dysmorphogenesis with a common genetic basis. Mutations in multiple members of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the most common hereditary urea cycle defect. It is inherited in an X-linked manner and classically presents in neonates with encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in males. Females and males with hypomorphic mutations present later, sometimes in adulthood, with episodes that are frequently fatal. CASE(More)
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