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We evaluate seven techniques for extracting unique signatures from NAND flash devices based on observable effects of process variation. Four of the techniques yield usable signatures that represent different trade-offs between speed, robustness, randomness, and wear imposed on the flash device. We describe how to use the signatures to prevent counterfeiting(More)
Large register files are common in highly multi-threaded architectures such as GPUs. This paper presents a hybrid memory design that tightly integrates embedded DRAM into SRAM cells with a main application to reducing area and power consumption of multi-threaded register files. In the hybrid memory, each SRAM cell is augmented with multiple DRAM cells so(More)
— We demonstrate that unmodified commercial Flash memory can provide two important security functions: true random number generation and digital fingerprinting. Taking advantage of random telegraph noise (a type of quantum noise source in highly scaled Flash memory cells) enables high quality true random number generation at a rate up to 10Kbits / second. A(More)
—This paper introduces a novel information hiding technique for Flash memory. The method hides data within an analog characteristic of Flash, the program time of individual bits. Because the technique uses analog behaviors, normal Flash memory operations are not affected and hidden information is invisible in the data stored in the memory. Even if an(More)
—This paper provides detailed characterizations of physical sources behind Flash memory based Physical Unclonable Functions (FPUFs). Universal process variations in Flash physical systems are identified and decomposed into layout, intrinsic, stress and bit-wise fluctuation sources. The study shows the understanding of systematic variations and noise sources(More)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a major division of the nervous system and vital to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its communication with the rest of the body. Unlike the brain and spinal cord, relatively little is known about the ENS in part because of the inability to directly monitor its activity in live animals. Here, we integrate a transparent(More)
We demonstrate accurate real-time 3D robotic arm tracking in indoor environment via broadband RF nonlinear backscattering from passive tags, which is immune to mild visual obstruction from clothes and interior walls as well as static magnetic field distortion from the metallic structures and motors. The marker tag on the robotic arm has nonlinear(More)
BACKGROUND Computationally efficient spike recognition methods are required for real-time analysis of extracellular neural recordings. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is important to human health but less well-understood with few appropriate spike recognition algorithms due to large waveform variability. NEW METHOD Here we present a method based on(More)