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The methodology, characteristics and application of the sensitive C(2)H(2)-C(2)H(4) assay for N(2) fixation by nitrogenase preparations and bacterial cultures in the laboratory and by legumes and free-living bacteria in situ is presented in this comprehensive report. This assay is based on the N(2)ase-catalyzed reduction of C(2)H(2) to C(2)H(4), gas(More)
The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) has been shown to be a critical and nonredundant negative regulator of immune cells in protecting normal tissues from inflammatory damage. We hypothesized that A2AR also protects cancerous tissues by inhibiting incoming antitumor T lymphocytes. Here we confirm this hypothesis by showing that genetic deletion of A2AR in the(More)
A recent epidemiological study suggested that higher caffeine intake over decades reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study sought to determine any long-term protective effects of dietary caffeine intake in a controlled longitudinal study involving AD transgenic mice. Caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) was added to the(More)
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal(More)
Naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) are crucial for maintaining tolerance to self and thus preventing autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections. In cancer, Treg down-regulate antitumor responses by several distinct mechanisms. This study analyzes the role the adenosinergic pathway plays in suppressive activities of human nTreg. Human(More)
Several endogenous factors generated within the vessel wall have been implicated in contributing to the vascular remodeling process associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, substances generated by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are known to regulate SMC proliferation in an autocrine fashion. Adenosine is a vasodilator synthesized by SMCs,(More)
The effect of adenosine and its analogues on the cytotoxic activity of IL-2-activated NK cells was investigated. Adenosine is an endogenous ligand for four different adenosine receptor (AdoR) subtypes (AdoRA1, AdoRA2A, AdoRA2B, and AdoRA3). Increased concentrations of adenosine were found in ascites of MethA sarcoma or in culture medium of 3LL Lewis lung(More)
Abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) is frequently associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis, and homeostasis within a normal vessel is maintained by the balanced generation of both vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. Moreover, several endogenous vasoconstricting factors induce SMC growth, whereas several vasodilators inhibit SMC(More)
Renovascular and renal excretory responses to intrarenally infused angiotensin II (Ang II) (1 and 3 ng/min, one dose per rat) were assessed in young (approximately 6 weeks of age) anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats acutely treated with captopril. Urinary excretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was also(More)