Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen

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We here review existing evidence for majority influences in children under the age of ten years and comparable studies with animals ranging from fish to apes. Throughout the review, we structure the discussion surrounding majority influences by differentiating the behaviour of individuals in the presence of a majority and the underlying mechanisms and(More)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.08.004 0003-3472/© 2014 The Association for the Study of A In this review, we explore the extent to which the recent evidence for conformity in nonhuman animals may alternatively be explained by the animals' preference for social information regardless of the number of individuals demonstrating the respective(More)
Following the crowd is usually dismissed as mindless acquiescence, devoid of original thought and authenticity. Despite this seemingly undesirable predicate, in human interactions majority influences seem pervasive, even beyond conscious control (Sweeny & Whitney, 2014). The influence of majorities on individuals' learning and decision making has therefore(More)
A case of a Suriname female occipito-parietal to occipito-parieto-temporal craniopagus twins is described. The girls were transferred to the VU University Medical Center (VUmc) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, for further diagnostics and to analyze whether surgical separation was feasible and ethically justifiable. The multifactorial aspects of different(More)
In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through(More)
Social learning in chimpanzees has been studied extensively and it is now widely accepted that chimpanzees have the capacity to learn from conspecifics through a multitude of mechanisms. Very few studies, however, have documented the existence of spontaneously emerged traditions in chimpanzee communities. While the rigour of experimental studies is helpful(More)
Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients’ treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended(More)
The authors examine the incremental cost-effectiveness of using quadrivalent influenza vaccines rather than trivalent vaccines in various age and risk groups in England, finding that use of quadrivalent vaccines in pediatric groups was most likely to be cost-effective (i.e., with the greatest incremental cost per quadrivalent dose), with extending(More)
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