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A different approach to the measurement of DNA damage has been developed based on the fact that many lesions can be excised from DNA in the form of modified dinucleoside monophosphates. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used in conjunction with isotopically labeled internal standards to quantify the lesion. The method has several(More)
This review surveys the work that has been done on free radical-induced DNA double lesions. Double lesions consist of two modifications of the DNA in close proximity. Double lesions can be generated by a single free radical-initiating event and the mechanism of formation often involves the participation of guanine. The identification of double lesions in(More)
A new tandem base lesion has been identified in two DNA oligomers, namely d(GpT) and d(CpGpTpA), exposed to X-irradiation in deoxygenated aqueous solution. In this lesion the C6 carbon atom of thymine is hydroxylated and a covalent link is formed between the C5 carbon atom of thymine and the C8 carbon atom of the adjacent guanine base. In addition, further(More)
It was demonstrated previously that double lesions are produced in DNA by ionizing radiation. These double lesions consist of adjacent nucleotides each bearing a modified base. The goal of the present investigation was to determine whether Fenton chemistry can generate the same kind of lesions. DNA oligomers were exposed to metal-catalyzed H(2)O(2)(More)
Evidence has been accumulating at the oligomer level that free radical-initiated DNA damage includes lesions in which two adjacent bases are both modified. Prominent examples are lesions in which a pyrimidine base is degraded to a formamido remnant and an adjacent guanine base is oxidized. An assay has been devised to detect double-base lesions based on the(More)
Previously, double lesions in which two adjacent bases are modified were identified in DNA oligomers exposed in solution to ionizing radiation. However, the formation of such lesions in polymer DNA had not been demonstrated. Using reference oligomer containing a specific double lesion and employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), it was(More)
The hydrolysis by nuclease P1 of the 16 common deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was examined. The rates of hydrolysis of phosphodiester bond differ by more than two orders of magnitude; dinucleotide monophosphates of the type d(TpN) being most resistant and d(GpN) being next most resistant. The profiles of a mixture of the 16 common dinucleoside(More)
Evidence is presented for the formation of products in irradiated dinucleoside monophosphates in which both bases are damaged. The dinucleoside monophosphates d(GpT), d(GpC), d(TpG) and d(CpG) were X-irradiated in oxygenated aqueous solution. Product identification was by NMR spectroscopy. In products containing double base lesions, guanine is converted to(More)
A new type of tandem base lesion has been observed in d(CpGpTpA) X-irradiated in aqueous solution. The lesion is attributed to the formation of a covalent bond between the C8 carbon atom of guanine and the methyl carbon atom of thymine. This tandem base lesion is formed in the absence of oxygen. It is the main product produced by ionizing radiation under(More)
Free radicals interact with DNA bases to produce secondary radicals. The secondary radicals are reactive species and tend to interact with neighboring bases, resulting in DNA lesions with two adjacent modified bases. In this study the DNA oligomers d(CpApTpG) and d(CpGpTpA) were exposed to free radicals generated in anoxic aqueous solution by X irradiation.(More)