Learn More
Long chain fatty acids and pharmacologic ligands for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activate expression of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT-1A) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). CPT-1A catalyzes the transfer of long chain fatty acids from acyl-CoA(More)
The uptake, biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and other lipids are exquisitely regulated by feedback and feed-forward pathways in organisms ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded transcription factors that are activated in the Golgi apparatus, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins(More)
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in(More)
For many G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs), the upkeep of receptor dimers could depend on association with functional Gi α subunits. This is known for Y1, Y2 and Y4 neuropeptide Y receptors [presented in the companion paper (Estes et al., Amino Acids, doi: 10.1007/s00726-010-0642-z , 2010)]. Interactions with transducers use mainly intracellular domains(More)
The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivators (PGC-1) have important roles in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic control in a variety of tissues. There are multiple isoforms of PGC-1 including PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta. Both the PGC-1alpha and beta isoforms promote mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, but only PGC-1alpha(More)
In the corpulent James C. Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rat, hyperinsulinemia leads to induction of lipogenic enzymes via enhanced expression of sterol-regulatory-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. This results in increased hepatic lipid production and hypertriglyceridemia. Information regarding down-regulation of SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes by dietary fatty(More)
While the ribosome constitution is similar in all biota, there is a considerable increase in size of both ribosomal proteins (RPs) and RNAs in eukaryotes as compared to archaea and bacteria. This is pronounced in the large (60S) ribosomal subunit (LSU). In addition to enlargement (apparently maximized already in lower eukarya), the RP changes include(More)
Hormone response elements (HREs) are nucleotide sequences that confer onto promoters the ability to alter their transcriptional pace in response to hormones. Growing evidence indicates that the functional activity of HREs can be significantly modulated by their promoter environment, making it possible for genes containing the same HRE to display diversity(More)
1. Excised rings of the coronary artery of the ox properly weighted react to epinephrin by dilatation. 2. This reaction of the ox coronary is not an active dilatation, but is in the nature of a sudden lowering from a high to a relatively low degree of tonus. The tonus is not, however, entirely abolished by epinephrin. 3. The degree of relaxation produced by(More)
1. Accessory lobes of thymus, derived from the third pharyngeal pouch, occurring in close association with the parathyroids from the third pouch, were found in serial section of the cervical tissues of eleven out of fourteen guinea pigs, and probably would have been found in all fourteen but for a technical error. 2. It is probable, therefore, that(More)