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Induction of lipogenesis in response to insulin is critically dependent on the transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). FoxO1, a forkhead box class-O transcription factor, is an important mediator of insulin action, but its role in the regulation of lipid metabolism has not been clearly defined. We examined the effects(More)
To understand the role of human 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX1) in vascular wall remodeling, we have studied the effect of the major 15-LOX1 metabolite of arachidonic acid, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration both in vitro and in vivo. Among 5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, and 15(S)-HETE, 15(S)-HETE(More)
Insulin resistance and neuroinflammation have emerged as two likely key contributors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), especially in those sporadic AD cases compromised by diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and its associated inflammatory response are hallmarks in sporadic AD brains. Elevated expression and activity(More)
Long chain fatty acids and pharmacologic ligands for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activate expression of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT-1A) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4). CPT-1A catalyzes the transfer of long chain fatty acids from acyl-CoA(More)
Treatment of CHO cells expressing human Y receptors (Y(1), Y(2) or Y4 subtype) with pertussis toxin results in a large decrease in functional receptors, with a preferential loss of heteropentameric assemblies of receptor dimers and G-protein trimers. This occurs in parallel to inactivation of the nucleotide site of Gi α subunits, with a half period of about(More)
Transcription of the gene for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is stimulated by cAMP, the thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) and retinoic acid (RA). Regulation of PEPCK transcription by T3 involves two sites in the promoter including a thyroid-hormone-response element (TRE) and a CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding site called P3I.(More)
The uptake, biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol and other lipids are exquisitely regulated by feedback and feed-forward pathways in organisms ranging from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. As endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded transcription factors that are activated in the Golgi apparatus, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins(More)
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4) inhibits PDC activity. Expression of the PDK genes is elevated in diabetes, leading to the decreased(More)
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in(More)
Insulin coordinately up-regulates lipogenic gene transcription via induction of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Conversely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease lipogenic gene transcription via suppression of SREBP-1c. We therefore examined the ability of n-3 PUFA to mitigate induction of SREBP-1c and its downstream lipogenic(More)