Edward W. Thommes

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Planets are believed to have formed through the accumulation of a large number of small bodies. In the case of the gas-giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, they accreted a significant amount of gas directly from the protosolar nebula after accumulating solid cores of about 5-15 Earth masses. Such models, however, have been unable to produce the smaller ice(More)
Runaway growth ends when the largest protoplanets dominate the dynamics of the planetesimal disk; the subsequent self-limiting accretion mode is referred to as " oligarchic growth. " Here, we begin by expanding on the existing analytic model of the oligarchic growth regime. From this, we derive global estimates of the planet formation rate throughout a(More)
We revisit the " dynamical shakeup " model of Solar System terrestrial planet formation, wherein the whole process is driven by the sweeping of Jupiter's secular resonance as the gas disk is removed. Using a large number of 0.5 Gyr-long N-body simulations, we investigate the different outcomes produced by such a scenario. We confirm that in contrast to(More)
Young planets interact with their parent gas disks through tidal torques. An imbalance between inner and outer torques causes bodies of mass 0.1 Earth masses (M ⊕) to lose angular momentum and migrate inward rapidly relative to the disk; this is known as " Type I " migration. However, protoplanets that grow to gas giant mass, O(10 2) M ⊕ , open a gap in the(More)
BACKGROUND The adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) to replace trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in immunization programs is growing worldwide, thus helping to address the problem of influenza B lineage mismatch. However, the price per dose of QIV is higher than that of TIV. In such circumstances, cost-effectiveness analyses provide important(More)
BACKGROUND The natural (i.e. unvaccinated population) attack rate of an infectious disease is an important parameter required for understanding disease transmission. As such, it is an input parameter in infectious disease mathematical models. Influenza is an infectious disease that poses a major health concern worldwide and the natural attack rate of this(More)
The ensemble of now more than 250 discovered planetary systems displays a wide range of masses, orbits and, in multiple systems, dynamical interactions. These represent the end point of a complex sequence of events, wherein an entire protostellar disk converts itself into a small number of planetary bodies. Here, we present self-consistent numerical(More)