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Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate relationships between self-monitoring operationalized by predicting recall and study strategy decisions made by adults with diffuse, acquired brain injury (ABI) and adults without ABI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen adults with ABI and 16 without ABI studied two lists of unrelated noun-pairs, made item-by-item immediate and(More)
This study used an MCF-7 cell based ER-alpha reporter gene assay to assess chemical interactions within the following ternary mixtures: (1) three synthetic pesticides, methoxychlor (MXC), o,p-DDT, and dieldrin; (2) three polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), 1,2-benzanthracene (BENZ), and chrysene (CHRY); and (3) an endogenous estrogen,(More)
Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of formant(More)
Twenty-four listeners received 20 dichotic listening runs of 30 pairs of natural CV nonsense syllables per run. Left- and eight-ear responses are represented by two partially overlapping normal distributions with equal variance. Observed ear advantages across listening runs are also distributed normally. The means of the distribution of ear advantage are(More)
This study investigates patterns of speech discrimination in profoundly hearing-impaired children who have received cochlear implants or tactile aids. The change/no change procedure was used to assess speech discrimination in these children. Three groups of subjects were tested: the first group used 3M/House single-channel cochlear implants; the second(More)
This study examined the effects of distance and postural position of both parents and children on the long-term and short-term spectral characteristics of speech produced by the parents. Thirty children (ages 2 months to 3 1/2 years) and their parents (30 mothers and 15 fathers) participated. Third-octave band and overall levels of the long-term average(More)
This study was designed to determine if an adaptive strategy could be used to select frequency/gain characteristics that would be considered appropriate across a variety of listening environments. In Experiment I, the test-retest reliability of the paired comparison procedure used in Experiment II was assessed in quiet for nine subjects and in speech noise(More)
BACKGROUND Safety assessment for repeated dose toxicity is one of the largest challenges in the process to replace animal testing. This is also one of the proof of concept ambitions of SEURAT-1, the largest ever European Union research initiative on alternative testing, co-funded by the European Commission and Cosmetics Europe. This review is based on the(More)
Assessing for interactions among chemicals in a mixture involves the comparison of actual mixture responses to those predicted under the assumption of zero interaction (additivity), based on individual chemical dose-response data. However, current statistical methods do not adequately account for differences in the shapes of the dose-response curves of the(More)