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Phylogenomic analyses of large sets of genes or proteins have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the tree of life. However, problems arise because estimated phylogenies from individual loci often differ because of different histories, systematic bias, or stochastic error. We have developed Concaterpillar, a hierarchical clustering method(More)
Microsporidia branch at the base of eukaryotic phylogenies inferred from translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) sequences. Because these parasitic eukaryotes are fungi (or close relatives of fungi), it is widely accepted that fast-evolving microsporidian sequences are artifactually "attracted" to the long branch leading to the archaebacterial(More)
The covarion hypothesis of molecular evolution proposes that selective pressures on an amino acid or nucleotide site change through time, thus causing changes of evolutionary rate along the edges of a phylogenetic tree. Several kinds of Markov models for the covarion process have been proposed. One model, proposed by Huelsenbeck (2002), has 2 substitution(More)
It has long been recognized that the rates of molecular evolution vary amongst sites in proteins. The usual model for rate heterogeneity assumes independent rate variation according to a rate distribution. In such models the rate at a site, although random, is assumed fixed throughout the evolutionary tree. Recent work by several groups has suggested that(More)
A confidence region for topologies is a data-dependent set of topologies that, with high probability, can be expected to contain the true topology. Because of the connection between confidence regions and hypothesis tests, implicitly or explicitly, the construction of confidence regions for topologies is a component of many phylogenetic studies. Existing(More)
BACKGROUND Widely used substitution models for proteins, such as the Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT) or Whelan and Goldman (WAG) models, are based on empirical amino acid interchange matrices estimated from databases of protein alignments that incorporate the average amino acid frequencies of the data set under examination (e.g JTT + F). Variation in the(More)
Previous work has shown that it is often essential to account for the variation in rates at different sites in phylogenetic models in order to avoid phylogenetic artifacts such as long branch attraction. In most current models, the gamma distribution is used for the rates-across-sites distributions and is implemented as an equal-probability discrete gamma.(More)
It has recently been proposed that a well-resolved Tree of Life can be achieved through concatenation of shared genes. There are, however, several difficulties with such an approach, especially in the prokaryotic part of this tree. We tackled some of them using a new combination of maximum likelihood-based methods, developed in order to practice as safe and(More)
We investigate the use of Markov models of evolution for reduced amino acid alphabets or bins of amino acids. The use of reduced amino acid alphabets can ameliorate effects of model misspecification and saturation. We present algorithms for 2 different ways of automating the construction of bins: minimizing criteria based on properties of rate matrices and(More)
MOTIVATION Expressed sequence tag (EST) surveys are an efficient way to characterize large numbers of genes from an organism. The rate of gene discovery in an EST survey depends on the degree of redundancy of the cDNA libraries from which sequences are obtained. However, few statistical methods have been developed to assess and compare redundancies of(More)