Edward Stenehjem

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OBJECTIVE To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. DESIGN A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes, and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. METHODS An anonymous 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at 2 university hospitals in Addis(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization burden has been identified as a risk factor for infection. This study evaluates methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) nasal burden, as defined by the cycle threshold (Ct) and risk of subsequent infection. METHODS In a retrospective cohort study, United States veterans were classified into 3 MRSA nasal(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasingly complicated by antibiotic resistance. CAP due to pathogens resistant to guideline-recommended drugs (CAP-DRP) has increased. 2005 ATS/IDSA guidelines introduced a new category, healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and recommend extended-spectrum antibiotic treatment for(More)
OBJECTIVE Describe local changes in the incidence of community-onset and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and evaluate the impact of MRSA active surveillance on hospital-onset infection. DESIGN Observational study using prospectively collected data. SETTING Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center (AVAMC). (More)
Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended(More)
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of humans have evolved a range of virulence factors to promote motility, attach to epithelial or endothelial cell surfaces, avoid host immune responses, activate or inactivate host cellular pathways and ultimately cause clinical disease. Gram-negative sepsis is a life-threatening complication of these events. This review(More)
BACKGROUND  Antibiotic use and misuse is driving drug resistance. Much of US healthcare takes place in small community hospitals (SCHs); 70% of all US hospitals have <200 beds. Antibiotic use in SCHs is poorly described. We evaluated antibiotic use using data from the National Healthcare and Safety Network antimicrobial use option from the Centers for(More)
Infections of central nervous system (CNS) devices are relatively common and potentially severe. The most common devices associated with infection are ventriculostomy catheters, shunts, and deep brain stimulators. The prevention, diagnosis, and management of these infections require a collaborative approach because of the complexity of surgery, the nuances(More)
We analyzed the cycle threshold (C(T)) of PCR surveillance MRSA swabs obtained from veterans. Lower C(T) on admission was associated with a positive culture from nasal swabs at discharge. Compared to PCR, direct plating of nasal swabs performed poorly, especially for patients with an elevated C(T). The C(T) is strongly correlated with quantitative nasal(More)
Using the Veterans' Health Administration MRSA Directive as a platform to collect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization isolates and an active MRSA infection surveillance program, the genetic relatedness of colonization and infection isolates was evaluated. Infection and colonization strain concordance was found in 85.7% of(More)