Edward Schaeffer

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Productive interaction of a T lymphocyte with an antigen-presenting cell results in the clustering of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the recruitment of a large signalling complex to the site of cell-cell contact. Subsequent signal transduction resulting in cytokine gene expression requires the activation of one or more of the multiple isoenzymes of(More)
PURPOSE More than 1 million prostate biopsies are performed annually among Medicare beneficiaries. We determined the risk of serious complications requiring hospitalization. We hypothesized that with emerging multidrug resistant organisms there may be an increasing risk of infectious complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a 5% random sample of Medicare(More)
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling requires activation of Zap-70 and Src family tyrosine kinases, but requirements for other tyrosine kinases are less clear. Combined deletion in mice of two Tec kinases, Rlk and Itk, caused marked defects in TCR responses including proliferation, cytokine production, and apoptosis in vitro and adaptive immune responses to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term oncologic efficacy of laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). METHODS Between August 1993 and May 2001, 39 patients underwent laparoscopic RNU for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) at our institution. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS Clinical outcomes were(More)
The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after an initial diagnosis of prostate cancer and management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring, treatment of recurrent disease, and systemic therapy for metastatic castration-recurrent prostate cancer also are included.(More)
Cancer cells differentiate along specific lineages that largely determine their clinical and biologic behavior. Distinct cancer phenotypes from different cells and organs likely result from unique gene expression repertoires established in the embryo and maintained after malignant transformation. We used comprehensive gene expression analysis to examine(More)
PURPOSE Recent anatomical studies have shown that branches of the cavernous nerves running adjacent to the prostate at the apex travel more anteriorly than previously recognized. Outcomes of robot assisted radical prostatectomy suggest improved postoperative sexual outcomes following high anterior release of the levator fascia. We prospectively evaluated(More)
Tec family kinases are implicated in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, and combined mutation of inducible T cell kinase (Itk) and resting lymphocyte kinase (Rlk)/Txk in mice dramatically impairs mature T cell function. Nonetheless, mutation of these kinases still permits T cell development. While itk(-)(/)- mice exhibit mild reductions in T cells with(More)
CONTEXT The optimal management strategy for men with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Numerous series have reported cancer control and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes following treatment with radical prostatectomy (RP). OBJECTIVE Critically review published oncologic and functional outcomes after RP, and(More)
The Tec kinases Rlk and Itk are critical for full T cell receptor (TCR)-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma and mitogen-activated protein kinase. We show here that the mutation of Rlk and Itk impaired activation of the transcription factors NFAT and AP-1 and production of both T helper type 1 (TH1) and TH2 cytokines. Consistent with these(More)