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Dislocations and their interactions strongly influence many material properties, ranging from the strength of metals and alloys to the efficiency of light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. Several experimental methods can be used to visualize dislocations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been used to image dislocations in materials, and(More)
Using scanning transmission electron microscopy we image ~4 nm platinum nanoparticles deposited on an insulating membrane, where the membrane is one of two electron-transparent windows separating an aqueous environment from the microscope's high vacuum. Upon receiving a relatively moderate dose of ~10(4) e/nm(2), initially immobile nanoparticles begin to(More)
* Modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as(More)
An ideal technique for observing nanoscale assembly would provide atomic-resolution images of both the products and the reactants in real time. Using a transmission electron microscope we image in situ the electrochemical deposition of lead from an aqueous solution of lead(II) nitrate. Both the lead deposits and the local Pb(2+) concentration can be(More)
Graphene's structure bears on both the material's electronic properties and fundamental questions about long range order in two-dimensional crystals. We present an analytic calculation of selected area electron diffraction from multi-layer graphene and compare it with data from samples prepared by chemical vapor deposition and mechanical exfoliation. A(More)
Conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) is a leading candidate to supersede flash memory, but poor understanding of its switching process impedes widespread implementation. The underlying physics and basic, unresolved issues such as the connecting filament's growth direction can be revealed with direct imaging, but the nanoscale target region is(More)