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This essay serves as a roadmap for theory and research on American police organizations. Organizational scholarship in policing has not progressed in an orderly or cumulative fashion. Some of the classic works in the study of police organizations remain well read but infrequently replicated or improved upon. Current research on police organizations is(More)
This paper examines toxicology results from homicide victims in Trinidad and Tobago to explore patterns in pre-mortem drug and alcohol use. Toxicology test results were obtained for 1,780 homicide victims. Toxicology data from the coroner's office were linked with police data on homicide incidents to examine patterns in drug use and homicide. Trinidad and(More)
The views expressed are those of the authors, and should not be attributed to The Urban Institute, its trustees, or its funders. The authors wish to thank a number of people and organizations that assisted this project in various ways. Staff of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) conducted the telephone interviews for the Police Hiring and Retention(More)
The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been actively involved in endorsing and achieving the 20-year Program of Action set by the 180 participating countries at the Cairo conference. This Program of Action was designed to achieve gender equality, improved reproductive health, and population stabilization as well as a wide range of(More)
AIM To synthesize the results of alcohol toxicology reports for homicide victims and examine variations in these results across person and setting characteristics. METHODS We meta-analyzed 61 independent studies from 57 published manuscripts which met the study inclusion criteria and reported alcohol toxicology test results for homicide victims. A total(More)
This paper develops measures of family risk and protective factors for adolescent problem behaviors and tests the effects of these measures on three health risk behaviors in a Caribbean nation: illegal gun ownership, gang membership, and drug use. Data are drawn from a sample of 2,376 adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago, a developing nation in the eastern(More)
ABSTRACT Aim To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics. Methods A meta-analysis of 18 independent studies identified from an extensive review of 239 published articles that met the inclusion criteria of reporting marijuana,(More)
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