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The licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication origins, which ensures once-per-cell-cycle replication, involves the loading of six related minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs). Mcm2-7 forms the core of the replicative DNA helicase, which is inactive in the pre-RC. The loading of Mcm2-7 onto DNA requires the(More)
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is an unusually large E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for regulating defined cell cycle transitions. Information on how its 13 constituent proteins are assembled, and how they interact with co-activators, substrates and regulatory proteins is limited. Here, we describe a recombinant expression system that(More)
The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a modular apparatus assembled by many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and is designed to translocate proteins through the bacterial cell wall into the eukaryotic host cell. The conserved components of the TTSS comprise stacks of rings spanning the inner and outer bacterial membrane and a narrow, needle-like(More)
The ubiquitylation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins by the large multimeric anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) controls sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of APC/C targets is achieved through recognition of destruction motifs, predominantly the destruction (D)-box and KEN (Lys-Glu-Asn)-box. Although this process is known to(More)
Skp1-Cul1-Fbox (SCF) E3 ligases are activated by ligation to the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8, which is reversed by the deneddylating Cop9 signalosome (CSN). However, CSN also promotes SCF substrate turnover through unknown mechanisms. Through biochemical and electron microscopy analyses, we determined molecular models of CSN complexes with SCF(Skp2/Cks1)(More)
The evolutionary conserved COP9 signalosome (CSN), a large multisubunit complex, plays a central role in regulating ubiquitination and cell signaling. Here we report recombinant insect cell expression and two-step purification of human CSN and demonstrate its functional assembly. We further obtain a three-dimensional structure of both native and recombinant(More)
The subunit stoichiometry and symmetry of the neuronal alpha-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII) is investigated in this report to understand the structural basis of its regulation and mechanism at the molecular level. Two preparations are studied, alphaCaMKII obtained by overexpression in baculovirus-transfected insect cells and CaMKII(More)
X-monosomy is a form of Turner syndrome (TS) in which an entire X chromosome is missing. It is usually assumed that neuropsychological deficits in females with TS result from insufficient dosage of gene products from alleles on the sex chromosomes. If so, then parental origin of the single X chromosome should be immaterial. However, if there are imprinted(More)
Active muscles generate substantial mechanical forces by the contraction/relaxation cycle, and, to maintain an ordered state, they require molecular structures of extraordinary stability. These forces are sensed and buffered by unusually long and elastic filament proteins with highly repetitive domain arrays. Members of the myomesin protein family function(More)
IP3Rs (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors) are the intracellular channels that mediate release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum in response to the many stimuli that evoke Ins(1,4,5)P3 formation. We characterized and purified type 1 IP3R heterologously expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and used the purified IP3R1 to determine its three-dimensional(More)