Edward M H Gardner

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For individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to fully benefit from potent combination antiretroviral therapy, they need to know that they are HIV infected, be engaged in regular HIV care, and receive and adhere to effective antiretroviral therapy. Test-and-treat strategies for HIV prevention posit that expanded testing and earlier(More)
Once-daily regimens of antiretroviral therapy are simpler than other regimens, but whether such regimens are associated with better adherence to treatment is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of 11 randomized, controlled trials (total number of subjects, 3029), which revealed that the adherence rate was better with once-daily regimens (+2.9%; 95%(More)
The use of antiretroviral medications in HIV-negative individuals as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to prevent HIV infection. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine exhibit desirable properties for PrEP including: favourable pharmacokinetics that support infrequent dosing; few major drug-drug or drug-food(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate opportunities for earlier human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis within a comprehensive public health care system. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective review of newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients between September 2001 and December 2003. RESULTS One hundred twenty of 348 (34%) newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients had medical care(More)
BACKGROUND  We assessed factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, including specific ART medications. METHODS  The Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study was an international antiretroviral therapy (ART) strategy trial that compared intermittent ART, using CD4(+) T-cell count as a guide, to continuous ART.(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the occurrence of differential adherence to components of combination antiretroviral therapy and assess its predictors and association with virological failure and antiretroviral medication resistance. DESIGN A secondary analysis of prospective clinical trial data. METHODS The Flexible Initial Retrovirus Suppressive Therapies(More)
Tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF)±emtricitabine (FTC) are widely used for HIV treatment and chemoprophylaxis, but variable adherence may lead to suboptimal responses. Methods that quantify adherence would allow for interventions to improve treatment and prevention outcomes. Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of TFV-diphosphate(More)
PURPOSE Several observations suggest the presence of HIV-suppressive factors in the fluid phase of blood. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in the circulation, has potent anti-HIV activity in vitro, and may function as an endogenous HIV suppressor. Therefore, we assessed serum AAT concentrations for association with HIV(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to compare atazanavir pharmacokinetics in genetically determined CYP3A5 expressors versus non-expressors. METHODS HIV-negative adult volunteers were pre-screened for CYP3A5 *3, *6 and *7 polymorphisms and enrollment was balanced for CYP3A5 expressor status, gender and race (African-American versus(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the association between antiretroviral adherence and the development of class-specific antiretroviral medication resistance. DESIGN AND METHODS Literature and conference abstract review of studies assessing the association between adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the development of antiretroviral medication resistance. RESULTS(More)