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Information concerning the fundamental mechanisms of action of both natural and environmental hormones, combined with information concerning endogenous hormone concentrations, reveals how endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (EEDCs) can be active at concentrations far below those currently being tested in toxicological studies. Using only(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic airway diseases are more common in females than in males during early adulthood. A relationship between female hormones and asthma prevalence and severity has been suggested, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not understood. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the mechanism(s) by which estrogens enhance the synthesis and release of(More)
Estrogen can increase insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) expression, two key components of IGF-I-mediated signaling. The result is sensitization of breast cancer cells to IGF-I and synergistic growth in the presence of estrogen and IGF-I. We hypothesized that loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha is mutated (lysine 303 to arginine, K303R) in approximately one third of premalignant breast hyperplasias, which renders breast cancer cells expressing the mutant receptor hypersensitive for proliferation in response to low doses of estrogen. It is known that ERalpha is posttranslationally modified by protein acetylation and(More)
Alterations in histones, chromatin-related proteins, and DNA methylation contribute to transcriptional silencing in cancer, but the sequence of these molecular events is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that on disruption of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha signaling by small interfering RNA, polycomb repressors and histone deacetylases are recruited to(More)
Understanding estrogen's regulation of phase II detoxification enzymes is important in explaining how estrogen exposure increases the risk of developing certain cancers. Phase II enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferases (GST) and quinone reductase protect against developing chemically induced cancers by metabolizing reactive oxygen species. Phase II(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER)alpha activity is controlled by the balance of coactivators and corepressors contained within cells that are recruited into transcriptional complexes. The metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family has been demonstrated to be associated with breast tumor cell progression and ERalpha activity. We demonstrate that MTA2 expression is(More)
Regulation of breast cancer growth by estrogen is mediated by estrogen receptors (ER) in nuclear and extranuclear compartments. We assessed the structure and functions of extranuclear ER that initiate downstream signaling to the nucleus. ER, including full-length 66-kDa ER and a 46-kDa ER splice variant, are enriched in lipid rafts from MCF-7 cells with(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in host defense against pathogens and immune surveillance against cancer. Given that estrogens have been reported to suppress NK cell activity, we sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which estrogen mediates this effect. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical staining with estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)- and(More)
CpG island hypermethylation is known to be associated with transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes in neoplasia. We have previously detected aberrantly methylated sites in the first intron of the Wilms' tumor suppressor (WT1) gene in breast cancer. In the present study, we extended the investigation to a CpG island located in the promoter and(More)