Edward L. Loechler

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Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the(More)
The mutagenicity of O6-methylguanine (O6MeGua), a chemical carcinogen-DNA adduct, has been studied in vivo by using a single-stranded M13mp8 genome in which a single O6MeGua residue was positioned in the unique recognition site for the restriction endonuclease Pst I. Transformation of Escherichia coli MM294A cells with this vector gave progeny phage, of(More)
What do we currently know about the occupational and environmental causes of cancer? As of 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identified 415 known or suspected carcinogens. Cancer arises through an extremely complicated web of multiple causes, and we will likely never know the full range of agents or combinations of agents. We do(More)
The mutagenic and carcinogenic chemical aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) reacts almost exclusively at the N(7)-position of guanine following activation to its reactive form, the 8,9-epoxide (AFB1 oxide). In general N(7)-guanine adducts yield DNA strand breaks when heated in base, a property that serves as the basis for the Maxam-Gilbert DNA sequencing reaction specific(More)
DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links are the cytotoxic lesions for many chemotherapeutic agents. A plasmid with a single nitrogen mustard (HN2) interstrand cross-link (inter-HN2-pTZSV28) was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli, and its replication efficiency (RE = [number of transformants from inter-HN2-pTZSV28]/[number of transformants from(More)
Fapy.dG and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) are formed in DNA by hydroxyl radical damage. In order to study replication past these lesions in cells, we constructed a single-stranded shuttle vector containing the lesion in 5'-TGT and 5'-TGA sequence contexts. Replication of the modified vector in simian kidney (COS-7) cells showed that Fapy.dG(More)
Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or(More)
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the base sequence specificity of isophosphoramide mustard (IPM), the alkylating metabolite of ifosfamide, by crosslinking of designed DNA oligomers in comparison with the clinical alkylating agents mechlorethamine (ME) (nitrogen mustard) and phosphoramide mustard (PM), the alkylating metabolite of(More)
DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links are thought to be important for the cytotoxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents. To study this more definitively, adduct site-specific methods are used to construct a plasmid with a single nitrogen mustard interstrand cross-link (inter-HN2-pTZSV28). Replication efficiency (RE = [colonies from (inter-HN2-pTZSV28)/(control(More)
Mutagenesis by the suspected major mutagenic metabolite of activated benzo[a]pyrene, which is (+)-anti-BPDE, was analyzed with a new system, which permits the selection of supF- mutations in an Escherichia coli plasmid using lactose minimal plates. (+)-anti-BPDE enhances base pairing mutations--principally at G:C base pairs, frameshift mutations and large(More)