Edward K. Summers

Learn More
World-wide water scarcity, especially in the developing world, indicates a pressing need to develop inexpensive, decentralized small-scale desalination technologies which use renewable resources of energy. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the stateof-the-art in one of the most promising of these technologies, solar-driven(More)
Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law(More)
Over 58,000 patients suffer from renal cell carcinoma annually in the US. Treatment for this cancer often requires surgical removal of the cancerous tissue in a partial nephrectomy procedure. In open renal surgery, the kidney is placed on ice to increase allowable ischemia time; however there is no widely accepted method for reducing kidney temperature(More)
Partial nephrectomy is the gold standard treatment for renal cell carcinoma. This procedure requires temporary occlusion of the renal artery, which can cause irreversible damage due to warm ischemia after 30 min. Open surgical procedures use crushed ice to induce a mild hypothermia of 20°C in the kidney, which can increase allowable ischemia time up to 2.5(More)
Article is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use. The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Relative to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively(More)
World-wide water scarcity, especially in the developing world, indicates a pressing need to develop inexpensive, decentralized small-scale desalination technologies which use renewable resources of energy. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the stateof-the-art in one of the most promising of these technologies, solar-driven(More)
  • 1