Edward J. Williams

Learn More
The sex chromosomes and autosomes spend different times in the germ line of the two sexes. If cell division is mutagenic and if the sexes differ in number of cell divisions, then we expect that sequences on the X and Y chromosomes and autosomes should mutate at different rates. Tests of this hypothesis for several mammalian species have led to conflicting(More)
Many attempts to test selectionist and neutralist models employ estimates of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitution rates of orthologous genes. For example, a stronger Ka-Ks correlation than expected under neutrality has been argued to indicate a role for selection and the absence of a Ks-GC4 correlation has been argued to be inconsistent with(More)
Conventional Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation often produces a significant frequency of transgenic events containing vector backbone sequence, which is generally undesirable for biotechnology applications. We tested methods to reduce the frequency of transgenic plants containing vector backbone by incorporating genes into the backbone that(More)
Single transgene copy, vector backbone-free transgenic crop plants are highly desired for functional genomics and many biotechnological applications. We demonstrate that binary vectors that use a replication origin derived from the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (oriRi) increase the frequency of single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants in(More)
The bioavailability or oral, sublingual, and chewable tablets or erythrityl tetranitrate (ETN) was evaluated in 15 normal men. In a randomized, complete crossover investigation with nitroglycerin and placebo controls, drug-induced changes in the diastolic amplitude response intensity were measured with a digital plethysmogram. Values for area under the(More)
Many companies have achieved high-value, conspicuous successes (cost savings or avoidance, workflow improvement, product-launch timing improvement) attributable to individual simulation studies. Fewer have achieved the ongoing, long-term benefits of making the undertaking of simulation analyses a "corporate norm." Strategies to enable this expansion of(More)